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Chance plays an important role in human life. For example it is common for a farmer to expect the chance of raining; for a captain to estimate the chance of his team winning the game; and for an army chief to estimate the chance of destroying the strategy of the enemy.

Even though there is a lot of experience and logical thinking behind these expectations, one needs an appropriate measure, to estimate the chance. For this purpose the theory of probability was originated. In other words, the branch of mathematics which deals with the estimation of chance, is called the Theory of Probability.


The Theory of Probability has its origin in gambling, which was more popular in the 17th century in France. The Italian mathematician Galileo (1564 - 1642) tried to derive a quantitative measure to estimate the results, when dice are rolled in gambling. But the foundation for probability was laid by Pascal (1623 - 62) and Fermat (1601 - 65) through their letters and discussions. Huygens (1629 - 1695), a Dutch mathematician published the first book on Probability. Jacob Bernouli (1654 - 1705) applied this theory to the other branches of mathematics.

In 1933 Kolmogorov, a Russian mathematician made it more applicable, by the axiomatic approach. Now we will define some technical terms to introduce Probability.


Baise Pascal  (1623 - 62)

                        Pierre de Fermat (1601 - 65)

Galileo (1564 – 1642) Jacob Bernouli (1654 - 1705)
Huygens (1629 - 1695) Kolmogorov

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