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What was the cause for the French Revolution?

The demand for individual rights was the cause for the French Revolution. The Church and the Aristocracy dominated the society. The peasants, businessmen and the rest of the society who were called the 3rd estate were dissatisfied. When living conditions became harsh the poor among the 3rd estate revolted. This lead to the outbreak of revolutionary protest in France.
The French Revolution (1789–1799) was a period of political and social upheaval and radical change in the history of France, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on Enlightenment principles of citizenship and inalienable rights. 
These changes were accompanied by violent turmoil which included the trial and execution of the king, vast bloodshed and repression during the Reign of Terror, and warfare involving every other major European power. Subsequent events that can be traced to the Revolution include the Napoleonic Wars, two separate restorations of the monarchy, and two additional revolutions as modern France took shape. 



Who were the Liberals, Radicals and Conservatives?

The Liberals, Radicals and Conservatives were totally opposed in their views.

The Liberals wanted individual rights for the citizens, religious tolerance, and an elected parliament. They were not in favour of giving women the right to vote and they wanted only men with property to vote.

In contrast to the Liberals the Radicals were opposed to only wealthy men having the right to vote. They were in favour of women’s rights and wanted a Government that represented the majority of the population.

The Conservatives were truly conservative in their views . They wanted changes for the better, but wanted the changes to take place slowly, giving due respect to the past .


What was the impact of Industrialisation?

Due to rapid industrialisation men, women and children were forced to work in factories as their was a great demand for labourers. Labourers were made to work long hours and were paid poorly. Though industrialisation was rapid the demand for industrial goods was low . This resulted in poor working conditions. The rapid growth in towns also caused problems in housing and sanitation.


List out the Socialist Ideas of the mid 19th century.

The Socialist Ideas of the mid 19th century are as follows:

1. They were against private property.

2. Private property was the root cause for all social ills.

3. The propertied individual owners were concerned only about their own profits.

4. The welfare of the workers was neglected.

5. They wanted a society controlled property rather than the individual owned as that would pay more attention to the social interest.


Give a brief note on the following personalities.

a. Robert Owen

b. Louis Banc of France

c. Karl Marx.

a. Robert Owen (1771 – 1858)
Robert Owen was an English Manufacturer. He advocated a cooperative community called New Harmony in Indiana (USA).

b. Louis Banc of France (1813 – 1882)
Louis Banc wanted the government to encourage cooperatives and replace the capitalist enterprises. He advocated that people who produced the goods should form an association and the profit should be divided according to the work done.

c. Karl Marx (1818 – 1883)
Karl Marx called the industrial society as the ‘Capitalist’ society. He championed the cause of the workers and said that the condition of the workers would improve only if the workers overthrow the capitalists and the rule of private property. So. Marx said that the workers had to create a society where the property was socially controlled. Only in such a radically socialist society the workers would be freed from the capitalist exploitation. According to him such a society would be a communist society and he called it as the natural society of the future.


What were the demands workers’ associations formed in England and Germany?

Workers in England and Germany formed associations. They demanded reduction in the working hours and the right to vote. These Association also set up funds to help workers in distress.


Mention the Czars who ruled Russia from 1801 to 1917 and write a brief account on each on them .

The Czars who ruled Russia from 1801 to 1917 were …

Alexander I (1801-25)

Nicholas I (1825-55)

Alexander II (1855-81),

Alexander III (1881-1894)

Nicholas II (1894 –1917)

* Alexander I (1801-25)
Alexander began his regime as a liberal but was later influenced by the staunch reactionary.

* Nicholas I (1825-55)
Nicholas I, had no sympathy for western liberalism and crushed revolts at home and also in Poland.

* Alexander II (1855-81)
One of the most important reforms that Alexander II carried out in his country was the liberation of millions of Serfs. This is called the famous Edict Emancipation (1861). He drew up a programme by which the serfs became free and owned plots of agricultural land. However they were made to pay a sum of money every year to compensate the landlord for the loss of his land. After some time the Czar lost much interest in the reforms and started his reactionary rule. He was assassinated in 1881.

* Alexander III (1881-1894)
Alexander III , to avenge his father’s murder, let loose the reign of oppression. He tightened press censorship and ordered the arrest of all suspected persons who opposed the rule.

* Nicholas II (1894 –1917) 
Nicholas II also continued to remain as oppressive as the earlier Czars. The common people began to hate him and his notorious ministers.


What made the Czarist government bow to the demands of the common man?

The disastrous defeat in the Far East culminated in the outbreak of riots in the cities and district towns. The Russian peasants rose in revolt and burnt the homes of their rich landlords. In the meanwhile, the people marched down the streets of the capital to the royal palace to submit a petition containing their grievances but the Czar was in no mood to entertain them. The royal guards opened fire and hundreds were killed and this horrible incident sent a wave of shock throughout the country. The news of the death of hundred of Russians provoked the workers in the cities to go on a general strike. The industrial workers’ strike spread throughout the country and the Czarist government became seriously concerned with the worsening crisis. The Czar was frightened at the halting of the country’s wheels of progress and finally yielded. He bowed to the demands of the common people and introduced many reforms.


During the 1905 Revolution what did the Russian Czar promise the common man?

During the 1905 Revolution, the Russian Czar promised the common man…
Freedom of press, speech and assembly
He recognized the trade unions.
He also cancelled arrears of land payments by the peasants.
• Ηε promised to hold elections for the Duma (Russian parliament).


Why did the Revolution of 1905 fail?

Soon after the royal troops returned from the Far East the Czar began his oppressive rule. The Czar revised the election rules in such a way that only the loyal upper class representatives were voted to power. The new Duma meekly submitted to the power of the Czar. Thus the Revolution of 1905 failed.


Trace the down fall of the Czar Rule .

The entry of Russia into World War I was an act of crowning folly on the part of the Czar. The country was hardly prepared for war of such magnitude against such a formidable enemy like Germany. The war weary Russian soldiers could hardly make any progress on the war front. Thousands of ill-equipped and untrained peasants were sent to the war front only to get killed by the highly trained German troops. The Czar was forced to abdicate (March 1917). His wife and a number of nobles were killed.


Who headed the Provisional Government after the downfall of the Czar rule?

A moderate social revolutionary called Alexander Karensky, who introduced a number of social reforms, headed the provisional government.


List out Lenin’s early measures.

Lenin’s early measures were ...

(i) He seized the properties of large landowners and the capitalists

(ii) Lands which belonged to the people, were distributed to the poor peasants

(iii) Factories were taken over by the government and handed over to the committee
members, elected by workers who were to run it.

(iv) The banks were nationalized and the depositors lost their money

(v) The New Economic Policy (NEP) was implemented in 1921

(vi) A stable currency was introduced

(vii) A new constitution was drawn up in 1923.


When did Lenin die, and who succeed him?

Lenin died in 1924 and Joseph Stalin succeeded him.


What caused the rise of many revolutionary parties?

Russia was defeated by Japan, a tiny Asiatic country, in the Russo-Japanese war that took place in 1904 . Discontentment rose to a new height. The Czarist government stood exposed for its inadequacy at the war. The Russians suffered a humiliating defeat and signed a number of secret treaties with Japan. As a result of this a large number of secret revolutionary parties sprang up. The Social Democratic Party was most radical in its character. The Social Democrats turned to catch the attention of industrial workers in the Russian cities and their moral mentor was Karl Marx.

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