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  • Sudden change in the society occurred after the French revolution which was dominated by the Church and the aristocracy and divided into estates and orders. 
  • The European Society was divided into liberals, radicals and conservatives. 
  • The Liberals wanted a nation that could tolerate all religion as people at this time either favoured one religion or the other. 
  • The Radicals wanted a government based on the majority of the population. 
  • Conservatives felt that changes should be brought forth slowly but at the same time the past should also be respected. 
  • The new trends in the society resulted in a profound change socially and economically. 
  • Many nationalists, radicals and the liberals did not like the government established in Europe in 1815. They were favouring revolutions to bring forth changes. 
  • By the mid nineteenth century socialism became popular and attracted many in Europe. 
  • Robert Owen, Louis Banc of France, Karl Marx were some of the great socialists of this time. 
  • When the socialist ideas spread in Europe they formed the Second International, an international body to coordinate their efforts. 
  • In Germany, associations worked very closely with the Socialist Democratic Party which helped the party to win seats in the parliamentary election. 
  • The socialists and the trade unionists formed labour Party in the year 1905 in England. 
  • Russian Revolution is the one of the most important landmarks in the history of the world. 
  • Compared to other European nations, Russia was politically backward, during the thirteenth century. Russia was partly semi barbaric and partly feudal. 
  • Serfdom is the socio-economic status of peasants under feudalism. 
  • Alexander I, Nicholas I, Alexander II, Alexander III and Nicholas II were some of the oppressive Czars of Russia. 
  • At the close of the nineteenth century, the Russian population had doubled and her economic conditions turned from bad to worse. 
  • Popular discontentment rose to a new height when Russia was defeated by a tiny Asiatic country Japan, in the Russo-Japanese war (1904-1905). 
  • The disastrous defeat in the Far East culminated in the outbreak of riots in the cities and district towns.
  • The Czar was frightened at the halting of the country’s wheels of progress and finally yielded. 
  • The entry of Russia into World War I was an act of crowning folly on the part of the Czar. 
  • The Czar was forced to abdicate (March 1917). His wife and a number of nobles were killed. 
  • A moderate social revolutionary called Alexander Karensky, who introduced a number of social reforms, headed the provisional government formed by the Duma. 
  • In 1903 that Nikolai Lenin became the leader of a more extremist revolutionary group called the Bolshevik party. 
  • When the position of the Menshevik government weakened under the leadership of Karensky, the Bolsheviks under Lenin took full advantage to overthrow this government.
  • The Bolsheviks struck on November 7, 1917, which resulted in the fall of the Provisional Government.
  • Stalin headed the Party after the death of Lenin and introduced firm measures, like the Collectivisation Programme.

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