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The Czarist Rule

  • Alexander I (1801-25) began his regime as a liberal but was later influenced by the staunch reactionary. He could do little to reform his administration.

Alexander I

  • Nicholas I (1825-55) had no sympathy for western liberalism and crushed revolts at home and also in Poland.

Nicholas I

  • Alexander II (1855-81), with the defeat of the Russian army in the Crimean War proved that the Czarist autocracy was of no match for the industrial nations like Britain and France. One of the most important reforms that he carried out in his country was the liberation of millions of Serfs. This was called the famous Edict Emancipation (1861). He drew up a programme by which the serfs became free and owned plots of agricultural land. However they were made to pay a sum of money every year to compensate the landlord for the loss of his land. After some time the Czar lost much interest in the reforms and started his reactionary rule. He was assassinated in 1881.

Alexander II

  • Alexander III (1881-1894) to avenge his father’s murder, let loose the reign of oppression. He tightened the press censorship and ordered the arrest of all suspected persons who opposed the rule.

Alexander III

  • Nicholas II (1894 –1917) also continued to remain as oppressive as the earlier ones. The common people began to hate him and his notorious ministers.

Nicholas II


Czar Palaces

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