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Make a comparison and write down ways in which plant cells are different from animal cells.


Plant cell

Animal cell

The outermost covering of the plant cell is the cell wall which is formed of cellulose.

The outermost covering is the plasma membrane.

Plastids are present.

Plastids are absent.

Vacuoles are large in size & lesser in number.

Vacuoles are smaller in size & more in number.

Centrioles are absent but polar caps are present.

Centrioles are present within centrosome.

Golgi apparatus is in the form of sub-units, called dictyosomes.

Prominent and highly complex golgi apparatus is present near nucleus.



How is a prokaryotic cell different from a Eukaryotic cell?


Prokaryotic cell

Eukaryotic cell

Cell size is generally small (1-10 m m).

Cell is generally large (5-100m m).

Nuclear region called nucleoid and not surrounded by a nuclear membrane.

Nuclear material is surrounded by a nuclear membrane.

Only a single chromosome is present.

More than one chromosome is present.

Nucleolus is absent.

Nucleolus is present.

Membrane bound cell organelles are absent.

Cell organelles bound by membrane is present.

Cell division by fission or budding.

Cell division mitotic or meiotic.



What would happen if the plasma membrane ruptures or breaks down?

The plasma membrane or cell membrane separates the cell contents from the external environment. Moreover, cell membrane is a selectively permeable membrane. So, it allows the entry of substances which are required into the cell, and also the exit of the substances which are not required by cell or are in excess.

The cell membrane also prevents movement of some materials through it. Thus, the danger of losing essential compounds out of cell is avoided. Similarly, the substances, which are not required by the cell, are prevented from entering into it.

The cell membrane is also semi permeable membrane. So, by osmosis it regulates the water content of the cell.
From the above information, it is concluded that a cell cannot live without cell membrane.


What would happen to the life of a cell if there were no Golgi apparatus?

Golgi apparatus pack and detach enzymes, hormones and other essential proteins and lipids secreted by endoplasmic reticulum to target inside and outside the cell. Moreover, the digestive enzymes, which remain concealed in lysosome, will remain free in the cytoplasm killing the other cell content. Over all, in absence of golgi apparatus the cell will die.


Which organelle is known as the powerhouse of the cell? Why?

Mitochondria are known as the ‘Power House’ of the cell. They are called so because the energy required for various life activities is released by mitochondria in the form of ATP molecules. The body uses energy stored in ATP for synthesis of new compounds and for mechanical work. As ATP instantly provides energy, they are called energy currencies of the cell.


Where do the lipids and proteins constituting the cell membrane get synthesized?

Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) – Synthesizes proteins constituting cell membrane.

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) – Secretes lipids constituting cell membrane.


How does an Amoeba obtain its food?

Amoeba has flexible cell membrane. It enables amoeba to engulf in food by the process called endocytosis.


What is osmosis?

The passage of water from a region of its high concentration through a semi permeable membrane to a region of low water concentration is known as osmosis.


Carry out the following osmosis experiment:

Take four peeled potato halves and hollow each one out to make potato cups. One of these potato cups one should be made from a boiled potato. Put each potato cup in a trough containing water. Now,

(a) Keep cup A empty

(b) Put one teaspoon sugar in cup B

(c) Put one teaspoon salt in cup C

(d) Put one teaspoon sugar in the boiled potato cup D.

Keep these for two hours. Then observe the four potato cups and answer the following:

(i) Explain why water gathers in the hollowed portion of B and C.

(ii) Why is potato A necessary for this experiment?

(iii) Explain why water does not gather in the hollowed out portions of A and D.

(a) Water gathers in the hollowed portion of potato B and C because:

(i) Living plasma membrane of potato cup act as semipermeable membrane.

(ii) There is higher concentration of water in trough than the sugar solution of B and salt solution of C potato cup respectively.

(iii) So, by process of osmosis water moves into potato cups B and C.

(b) Potato cup A is kept empty to act as control. This shows that osmosis occurs only when a solution with low concentration of water is separated by semipermeable cell membrane from the region of higher concentration of water.

(c) (i) In the potato cup A, there is no solution to cause osmosis to occur.

(ii) In the potato cup D, the potato cell membrane has lost the quality of semipermeability due to boiling. So, no water movement occurs from the trough water into the potato cup D.


Can you name the two organelles that you have studied about, which contain their own genetic material?

(i) Mitochondria and (ii) Plastid (chloroplast)


If the organization of a cell is destroyed due to some physical or chemical influence, what will happen?

Each cell has got certain specific cell organelles. Each cell organelle performs a special function, e.g., making of new material, removal of waste from the cell, release of energy etc. If the organization of a cell is destroyed, the function of the cell organelle will be disturbed, control of the nucleus will be lost. Ultimately the cell die.


Why are lysosomes known as suicide bags?

A lysosome is a membrane bound bag like structure which contains powerful enzymes. If lysosome bursts, its enzymes eat up other organelles of its own cell. Therefore, they are known as ‘suicide bags’.


Where do the ribosomes get synthesized?

Ribosomes get synthesized in nucleolus.

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