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  • Prokaryotic cells have no nuclei (nucleiod is present), while eukaryotic cells have a true nucleus
  • The cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is filled with a large, complex collection of organelles, many of them enclosed in their own membranes; the prokaryotic cell contains no membrane-bound organelles which are independent of the plasma membrane.
  • Plasma membrane is also called as selectively or differentially a semi-permeable membrane as it regulates only certain ions or substance to pass through but not the others.
  • Most acceptable model of plasma membrane is the fluid mosaic model proposed by S. Jonathan Singer and Garth Nicolson.
  • The phospholipids have two parts: a polar phosphate "head" and two non polar fatty acid "tails."
  • For prokaryotes, the cell wall usually contains large polymers called peptidoglycans.
  • In eukaryotes, the cell wall has three main parts:
    (i) The primary cell wall,
    (ii) The middle lamella, and
    (iii) The secondary cell wall.
  • The secondary cell wall contains both cellulose and a strong material called lignin.
  • Chloroplast is present only in green cells of plant and is a double membrane organelle. It contains chlorophyll and is the site of photosynthesis. It is absent in animal cells.
  • The stroma of the chloroplast contains other membranous structure called thyllakoids and grana which contains chllorophyll.
  • Functionally mitochondria are centres of cellular respiration and centres of production of energy-rich ATP molecules and are termed as the “power house” of a cell.
  • The enzymes of the TCA/citric acid cycle are found in a series on the inner membrane of mitochondria.
  • Vacuoles are sap-filled vesicles in the cytoplasm, covered by a membrane called the tonoplast in plants.
  • Endoplasmic reticulum is generally absent in eggs and embryonic cells but found in increased amounts as the cell differentiates.
  • Structurally endoplasmic reticulum exists as a network of flattened sacs arranged in parallel arrays or cisternae.
  • The Golgi apparatus was discovered by an Italian cytologist Camilo Golgi in 1898.
  • Golgi complex consists of a system of membrane-bound vesicles of varying sizes arranged in parallel arrays.
  • Nucleus was discovered in the year 1831 and named by Robert Brown.
  • The genes carried on the chromosomes are responsible for determination of characters.
  • Chromosomes are considered as hereditary vehicles as they store the necessary code in the DNA which is to be transmitted to the next generation.

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