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Question-1

What are macrophages?

Solution:
Macrophages are cells in areolar tissues that destroy microbes and foreign particles.

Question-2

What are companion cells?

Solution:
Companion cells are specialized parenchyma cells associated with sieve tubes.

Question-3

Write two functions of mast cells.

Solution:
The two functions of mast cells are:
(i) They release histamine.

(ii) They release heparin, an anticoagulant, which prevents blood clotting.

Question-4

Differentiate between tendon and ligaments.

Solution:
The difference between tendon and ligament are:
 

Tendon

Ligament

(i) It is tough and non-flexible.

(i) It is elastic and flexible.

(ii) It joins muscles to bones.

(ii) It joins bones to bones.

(iii) It is formed of white fibrous connective tissues and fibroblasts are arranged in rows.

(iii) It is formed of yellow fibrous tissues and fibroblasts are scattered in the matrix.

 

Question-5

How is nerve impulse transmitted through the synapse?

Solution:
A synapse is a junction between two neurons. The dendrites of the cyton of the other nerve cell remains in contact with the axon terminals of the neuron. The axon near the terminal end bears many branches terminating in button terminals. A neurotransmitter is released at the synapse, which transmits impulses to the next neuron.

Question-6

What is the main functions of connective tissue?

Solution:
The connective tissue is a jelly-like substance which acts as a lubricant and shock absorber.

Question-7

Write a note on adipose tissues.

Solution:
Adipose tissue is a specialized form of areolar tissue. These cells have fat droplets and the nucleus is pushed to one side. These cells do not have the capacity of division. They occur below the dermis of the skin, around kidneys and in the bone marrow. It contains macrophages, elastin as well as collagen fibres and a few fibroblasts. It provides insulation against cold.

Question-8

Distinguish the difference between collagen and elastic fibres.

Solution:
The difference between collagen and elastic fibres are as follows:
 

Collagen fibres

Elastic fibres

(i) They are wavy and unbranched.

(i) They are straight and branched.

(ii) They are resistant to stretching.

(ii) They are elastic in nature.

(iii) They are thick and made of collagen protein.

(iii) They are thin and made of elastin protein.

 

Question-9

Write two functions of cork.

Solution:
The 2 functions of cork are:
(i) It is used as a shock absorber in sports goods and linoleum.

(ii) It is highly compressible and is used for insulation.

Question-10

Differentiate between root apex and shoot apex.

Solution:
The difference between root apex and shoot apex are listed beow:

Root apex

Shoot apex

(i) The root apex is sub-terminal.

(i) The shoot apex is terminal.

(ii) The root apex does not have any lateral appendages.

(ii) The shoot apex has lateral appendages in the form of leaf primordia.

 

Question-11

What are the different types of muscles?

Solution:
The muscles are of three types. They are:
(i) Cardiac muscles

(ii) Striped muscles

(iii) Unstriped muscles
Cardiac muscles are involuntary muscles found in the heart. Striped muscles are cylindrical and voluntary. They are attached to the skeleton system. Unstriped muscles are involuntary muscles found in the hollow organs such as alimentary canal, urinary bladder and genital ducts etc. They are spindle shaped and uninucleated.

Question-12

What is the function of bone, cartilage, ligament and tendon?

Solution:
Bone – It forms the framework of the body.

Cartilage – It forms the endoskeleton in cartilaginous fishes.

Ligament – It joins bones to bones.

Tendon – It joins muscles to bones.

 

Question-13

What are sieve elements?

Solution:
The sieve elements are parts of the phloem. They are of two types, sieve cells and sieve tubes. Sieve cells occur in gymnosperms and pteridophytes. The cell walls are perforated. They have cell plates. In angiosperms sieve tubes occur. They are connected to each other to form a channel. They are meant for translocation and conduction of food material.

Question-14

Mention the different types of cells of xylem.

Solution:
 

Xylem cells

Functions

Tracheids and vessels

They conduct water and minerals from the roots to the upper parts of the plant.

Xylem parenchyma

They help in food storage and lateral transport of substances.

Xylem fibres

They provide strength and support to plants.

 

Question-15

Write a note on vascular tissue.

Solution:
Blood is a vascular tissue. Blood and lymphs are modified to connective tissues. Blood transports oxygen, carbon dioxide and nutrients etc. in the body. The cells move in a fluid matrix called plasma. Blood flows to all parts of the animal body. It connects every part of the body.

Question-16

Draw and label squamous, cuboidal and columnar cells.

Solution:

Question-17

Where does areolar tissues occur?

Solution:
The areolar tissues occur beneath the epithelia of hollow visceral organs, skin and on the walls of veins and arteries.

Question-18

Write the classification of animal tissues and their function.

Solution:

Animal Tissue

Functions

Epithelial tissue

Involves in protection, secretion and absorption.

Connective tissue

Involves in protection, support, storage, binding and circulation.

Muscular tissue

Functions with respect to movement and contraction.

Nervous tissue

Involved in control and conduction.

 

Question-19

Draw the flow chart for the classification of plants.

Solution:

Question-20

What is fasicular cambium?

Solution:
The cambium that develops within the vascular bundle is called fasicular cambium.




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