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Question-1

Define the term "tissue".

Solution:
A group of cells that are similar in structure and/ or work together to achieve a particular function forms a tissue.

Question-2

How many types of elements together make up the xylem tissue? Name them.

Solution:
Xylem is made up of four types of elements. They (i) tracheids (ii) vessels (iii) xylem parenchyma (iv) fibres.

Question-3

How are simple tissues different from complex tissues in plants?

Solution:
Simple tissues are made up of a type of cells which coordinate to perform a common function.
Complex tissues are made up of more than a type of cells. All these coordinate to perform a common function.

Question-4

Differentiate between parenchyma, collenchyma and sclerenchyma on the basis of their cell wall.

Solution:

Parenchyma

Collenchyma

Sclerenchyma

The cells of parenchyma have thin walls made of cellulose.

The cells of this tissue have cell walls thickened at the corners due to pectin deposition.

The walls of sclerenchymatous cells are thickened due to lignin deposition.

 

Question-5

What are the functions of the stomata?

Solution:
Functions of stomata:
(i) Exchange of gases, particularly CO2 and O2, with atmosphere.
(ii) Loss of water in the form of vapour during transpiration.

Question-6

Diagrammatically show the difference between the three types of muscle fibres.

Solution:


 

Question-7

What is the specific function of the cardiac muscle?

Solution:
The specific function of cardiac muscle is to contract and relax rhythmically throughout life.

Question-8

Differentiate between striated, unstriated and cardiac muscles on the basis of their structure and site/ location in the body.

Solution:

Character

Skeletal (Striated ) muscles

Smooth muscles

Cardiac muscles

Shape of the cells

Cells are long cylindrical, non-tapering and un-branched

Cells are long with tapering ends and un-branched.

Cells are non-tapering, cylindrical and branched.

Nucleus

Many nuclei  are situated towards the periphery of muscle fibre.

The cells have only one nucleus situated in the centre.

Each cell contains one or two nuclei situated in the centre.

Striatation

Transverse, alternate light and dark bands are present.

Stritations or stripes are absent.

Cells have faint stritations.

Mode of contraction

Voluntary rapid contract  but soon undergo fatigue.

Involuntary  Contract comparatively slow but do not fatigue.

Involuntary: they contract and relax rhythmically  throughout life, without fatigue under normal conditions.

Example of location

Hands, legs and other skeletal muscles

Wall of stomach, intestine, ureter, bronchi etc. 

Present in heart.

 

Question-9

Draw a labeled diagram of a neuron.

Solution:

Question-10

Name the following:
(a) Tissue that forms the inner lining of our mouth.
(b) Tissue that connects muscle to bone in humans.

(c) Tissue that transports food in plants.
(d) Tissue that stores fat in our body.
(e) Connective tissue with a fluid matrix.
(f) Tissue present in the brain.

 

Solution:
(a) Tissue that forms the inner lining of our mouth – Squamous epithelium
(b) Tissue that connects muscle to bone in humans - Tendon
(c) Tissue that transports food in plants - Phloem
(d) Tissue that stores fat in our body – Adipose tissue
(e) Connective tissue with a fluid matrix - Blood
(f) Tissue present in the brain – Nervous tissue

Question-11

Identify the type of tissue in the following: skin, bark of tree, bone, lining of kidney tubule, vascular bundle.

Solution:
(i) Skin                         – Striated squamous epithelium
(ii) Bark of trees                – Cork protective tissue
(iii) Bone                          – Connective tissue
(iv) Lining of kidney tubule  – Cuboidal epithelium 
(v) Vascular bundle            – Conducting tissue

Question-12

Name the regions in which parenchyma tissue is present.

Solution:
Parenchyma is found in cortex and pith of root and stem. When it contains chlorophyll, it is called chlorenchyma, found in green leaves.

Question-13

What is the role of epidermis in plants?

Solution:
Cells of epidermis form a continuous layer without intercellular spaces. It protects all parts of the plant.

Question-14

How does the cork act as a protective tissue?

Solution:
The secondary meristem forms on its outer side several layered thick cork or the barks of the trees.
Cork act as a protective tissue because (i) Its cells are dead and compactly arranged without intercellular spaces.
(ii) They also have deposition of suberin on the walls that makes them impervious to gases and water.
Thus, the cork protects the underlying tissues from excessive loss of water, adverse external environment and mechanical injuries.

Question-15

What are the functions of areolar tissue?

Solution:
Areolar tissue fills space inside the organs, supports internal organs and helps in the repair of the tissues.

Question-16

Name the three types of simple tissues.

Solution:
(i) Parenchyma (ii) Collenchyma and (iii) Sclerenchyma

Question-17

Where is apical meristem found?

Solution:
At the root tip and the shoot tip.

Question-18

Which tissue makes the husk of the coconut?

Solution:
Sclerenchymatous tissue.

Question-19

What are the constituents of phloem?

Solution:
Phloem is made up of four types of elements: Sieve tubes, companion cells, phloem fibres and the phloem parenchyma.

Question-20

Name the tissue responsible for the movement in our body.

Solution:
Muscles

Question-21

What is a neuron?

Solution:
A neuron is the unit cell of nervous tissue.

Question-22

Give three features of cardiac muscles.

Solution:
(i) Cardiac muscle cells are cylindrical branched and uninucleate.
(ii) They show rhythmic contraction and relaxation throughout life.
(iii) They are involuntary muscles.




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