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Tissue, Organs, Organ Systems, Organism

Now we will see in detail about the concepts of tissues.

Many different cells make up a multicellular organism. The human body is much more than a group of cells. The cells in a human body work together to form tissues which join together to form organs which in turn form organ system and finally the whole living body. The formation of an organism from the cells is given below.

An organ is a complex system of tissues working together to perform a life task for a human body. Heart, lungs, eyes, brain, and stomach are a few of the organs that reside in the human body. Various organs work together to form an organ system. An organ system is a group of organs working together to keep the human body alive. 

The following are some of the systems that exist in the human body:


Following are the functions of some of the major organ systems

The integumentary system comprises of the human skin. It protects the body from infection and keeps the body from losing water.

The skeletal system is used to provide protection for human organs and to support the body. The skeletal system is made up mostly of the bones in the human body. The bone marrow inside the bones is responsible for making new blood cells.

The muscular system works closely with the skeletal system to assist humans in movement.

The nervous system, made up of the brain and nerve cells, helps to control all the functions of the human body. It assists in monitoring the five senses.

The endocrine system uses glands in the human body to excrete chemicals which are  helpful in controlling the human body. Various chemicals are released through the endocrine system directly into the blood stream. They are released when the body is hungry, needs more blood cells, or acts in an emergency.

The respiratory system is made up of the nose, mouth, throat, trachea, and lungs. This system is used for breathing. When humans breathe, they inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. Lungs have tiny sacs called alveoli. These sacs help get oxygen to the lungs by the blood that is flowing from the heart.

The circulatory system carries oxygen to all parts of the body. The heart pumps blood into the aorta which breaks up into many arteries.  The arteries carry this oxygenated (oxygen rich) blood to the whole body. The capillaries are smaller tubes that release the blood to each cell and then collect the blood again to deliver it to the veins. The veins carry the blood back to the heart.

The digestive system takes in food and turns it into energy that the body uses. Food is chewed in the mouth into small pieces that the body can digest easily. Saliva is added to the food to start the digestion process. Food travels down the oesophagus and reaches the stomach. The stomach releases acid and enzymes to digest the food further. The small intestine absorbs the energy in the food and gives it to the blood to carry it to other body parts. The large intestine absorbs water from the food. The anus helps to release the waste from the body.

The excretory system helps in eliminating the nitrogenous waste circulating in the blood from body the through the kidney.

The reproductive system by its activity maintains the thread of life by the process of reproduction.

The immune system protects our body from all pathogenic infection by producing the T cells and the B cells.  

When all these organ systems work together, they make up what is known as the organism. An organism is any living thing - a plant, a fungus, an animal, a Paramecium, or a bacterium.

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