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a) Define health?
b) Define disease?

a) Health’ is state of being well enough to function well physically, mentally and socially.
b) Disease, without ease, which literally means being uncomfortable.


What are the various factors, which affect health?

The health of all organisms depends on their surroundings or their environment. The environment includes the physical environment and social environment.


Why is it necessary to collect garbage regularly?

It is necessary to collect garbage regularly because if there is a great deal of garbage thrown in our streets, or if there is open drain-water lying stagnant around where we live, the possibility of poor health increases.


Why do we need good economic condition?

Food is very essential for health, and this food will have to be earned by doing work. For this, the opportunity to do work has to be available. Only a good job will provide us with good economic conditions. Good economic conditions will help us keeping healthy.


Differentiate poor health from disease?

Poor health means without any simple cause in the form of an identifiable disease yet the person is not healthy. This is the reason why, when we think about health, we think about societies and communities.

On the other hand, when we think about disease, we think about an individual suffering from some symptoms of the diseases.


How does our body carry out the various functions?

All the cells in our body are grouped separately into tissues. These tissues make up physiological systems or organ systems that carry out body functions. Each of the organ systems has specific organs as its parts, and it has particular functions.


List some symptoms, which indicate that a person is suffering from an ailment?

Some of the common symptoms are headache, cough, loose motions, and a wound with pus. These indicate that there may be a disease, but they don’t indicate what is the exact disease.


Differentiate acute and chronic disease?



Acute disease

Chronic disease

Diseases that last for only very short period ---riod of time are called acute diseases.

Ailments, which last for a long time, even as much as a lifetime, are called chronic diseases.

Eg. Common cold

Eg. Elephantiasis




Distinguish between infectious and non-infectious disease?



Infectious disease

Non-infectious disease

Diseases where microbes are the immediate causes are called infectious diseases.

Disease which are not caused by microbes are called non infectious disease.

Microbes can spread in the community, and the the diseases they cause will spread within the community.

These diseases do not spread from one individual to the other.

Eg. Typhoid, malaria

Eg. Rheumatic heart disease, arthritis.




Give few examples of some common disease caused by the microbes?

Viruses- The common cold, influenza, dengue fever, AIDS etc.

Bacteria- Typhoid fever, cholera, tuberculosis, anthrax etc.

Protozoan- Malaria, kala-azar etc.

Fungi- Many common skin infections.

Helminthes- intestinal worm infections, elephantiasis .


How does an antibody destroy a bacterium?

The antibiotic penicillin block the bacterial processes that build the cell -wall. As a result, the growing bacteria become unable to make cell walls, and die easily. Human cells don’t make a cell wall anyway, so penicillin cannot have such an effect on us. Penicillin will have this effect on any bacteria that use such processes for making cell walls. Similarly, many antibiotics work against many species of bacteria rather than simply working against one.


What are the means of spread of diseases?

The various means of spread of diseases are (i) air borne (ii) water borne (iii) vector borne (iv) and direct contact.


Mention the two ways to treat a disease?

There are two ways to treat an infectious disease. One would be to reduce the effects of the disease. The other to kill the cause of the disease.


How can we prevent a disease?

There are two ways, of preventing a disease.
(i) One general and (ii) one specific to each disease.
The general ways of preventing infections mostly relate to preventing exposure to microbes. The specific ways include preparing vaccines for specific disease and administering to the individual.


How is hepatitis virus transmitted?

Hepatitis virus is transmitted through water.

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