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Operational Amplifier (Op-Amp)

An operational amplifier is a direct- coupled high gain, differential-input amplifier.
With the addition of suitable external feedback components, an op-amp can be used for a variety of application, such as ac and dc signal amplification, active filters, oscillators, comparators, regulators, and others.

Operational Amplifier Terminals

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Operational amplifier
Op-amp has five basic terminals—
  1. Two for input signals, V1 and V2 – differential input terminals.
  2. One for output signal, V0 single-ended output.
  3. Two for power supply, +V and –V. (Maximum V = ± 18 V)

Op-Amp Characteristics

Ideal Characteristics
  1. An infinite voltage gain
  2. An infinite bandwidth
  3. An infinite input impedance
  4. Zero output impedance
  5. Perfect balance, i.e., the output is zero when equal voltages are present at the two input terminals; and
  6. The characteristics do not change with temperature
Practical (Actual) Characteristics
  1. The gain at low- frequency is finite and very high (of the order of 103 to 106). The gain is constant upto a few hundred kHz and then decreases monotonically with the increase in frequency.
  2. The bandwidth is finite and very high.
  3. The input impedance lies in the range of 150 kΩ to a few hundred M Ω.
  4. The output impedance of a practical op-amp lies between 0.75 to 100 Ω.
  5. Perfect balance is not achieved with practical op-amps.

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