# Solved Problems-7

Problems-7

Determine whether the following continuous-time systems are causal or non-causal:

Solution

Here,
A cosine function can be evaluated at (
Therefore, the system is causal.

*y*(*t*) depends on the present input*x*(*t*).*t*+ 1).Here, if

*t*= 5, thenThus, the output
Therefore, the system is non-causal.

*y*(*t*) depends on the future input.Here, if

*t*= â€“3, thenThus, the output
Therefore, the system is non-causal.

*y*(*t*) depends on the future input.Here,
Therefore, the system is causal.

*y*(*t*) depends upon the present value of*x*(*t*).Here,
Therefore, the system is causal.

*y*(*t*) depends upon the present and the past values of*x*(*t*), but not on the future value.