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Indicators of Human Development


Let us now study some of the select indicators of Human Development and see how the three countries have performed.

Some Select Indicators of Human Development, 2003
 

Indicators

India

China

Pakistan

Human Development Index (Value)

 

Rank

 

Life Expectancy (Years)

 

Adult literacy rate

 

GDP per capita

 

People below poverty line

 

Infant Mortality rate

 

Maternity Mortality rate

 

Population with sustainable access to improved sanitation

 


Population with sustainable access to improved water source

 

Undernourished Population

.602

 

127

 

63.3

 

61.1

 

2,892

 

34.7

 

63

 

540

 

30

 

 

86

 

 

21

.755

 

85

 

71.6

 

90.9

 

5,003

 

16.6

 

30

 

56

 

44

 

 

77

 

 

11

.527

 

135

 

63

 

48.7

 

2,097

 

13.4

 

81

 

500

 

54

 

 

90

 

 

20

 

From the above table it is evident that China is moving ahead of India and Pakistan. This is true for all indicators like GDP per capita, people below poverty arte, infant mortality rate, etc. Both India and Pakistan have a very high female maternity mortality rate whereas the same is very low in China. This indicates great improvement in the health care sector. India and Pakistan are ahead of China in providing a good supply of water. People below the poverty line are very high in India while China and Pakistan are in the same level.

Though the indicators above are quite comprehensive they are not sufficient. We also need a measure called the liberty measure which is basically a measure of the extent of democratic participation in social and political decision making. Some liberty measures like measures of the external Constitutional protection given to rights of citizens or the extent of constitutional protection of the Independence of the Judiciary and the Rule of Law which have not come into existence so far. Hence we can say that without the inclusion of liberty measures any index of human development measures is incomplete.




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