Indicators of Human Development
Let us now study some of the select indicators of Human Development and see how the three countries have performed.
Some Select Indicators of Human Development, 2003
Human Development Index (Value)
Life Expectancy (Years)
Adult literacy rate
GDP per capita
People below poverty line
Infant Mortality rate
Maternity Mortality rate
Population with sustainable access to improved sanitation
From the above table it is evident that China is moving ahead of India and Pakistan. This is true for all indicators like GDP per capita, people below poverty arte, infant mortality rate, etc. Both India and Pakistan have a very high female maternity mortality rate whereas the same is very low in China. This indicates great improvement in the health care sector. India and Pakistan are ahead of China in providing a good supply of water. People below the poverty line are very high in India while China and Pakistan are in the same level.
Though the indicators above are quite comprehensive they are not sufficient. We also need a measure called the liberty measure which is basically a measure of the extent of democratic participation in social and political decision making. Some liberty measures like measures of the external Constitutional protection given to rights of citizens or the extent of constitutional protection of the Independence of the Judiciary and the Rule of Law which have not come into existence so far. Hence we can say that without the inclusion of liberty measures any index of human development measures is incomplete.