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Question-1

Expand ASCII.

Solution:
ASCII stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange.

Question-2

What is digital number system?

Solution:
It is used in digital system. The most commonly used number system is decimal, binary, octal and hexadecimal.

Question-3

What is meant by decimal system?

Solution:
The decimal system is composed of 10 numerals or symbols. These 10 symbols are 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9; these digits of a number can be used to express any quantity.

Question-4

Convert the following decimal number into its equivalent binary number 51210.

Solution:
 

Quotient

Remainder
512 /2 256 0
256 / 2 128 0
128 / 2 64 0
64 / 2 32 0
32 / 2 16 0
16 / 2 8 0
8 / 2 4 0
4 / 2 2 0
2 / 2 1 0

51210 = 10000000002

Question-5

Distinguish between MSB and LSB.

Solution:
The left most bit in the binary number is called the most significant bit (MSB) and it has the largest positional values. The right most bit is called as the least significant bit (LSB) and has the smallest positional values.

Question-6

Find the decimal equivalent of 101112.

Solution:
101112 = 1 x 24 + 0 x 23 + 1 x 22 + 1 x 21 + 1 x 20

              = 16 + 0 + 4 + 2 + 1

              = 2310.

Question-7

What is hexadecimal number system?

Solution:
The number system that uses 16 symbols (0 to F) is called hexadecimal number system. The number in this system is represented to the base 16 and the positional multipliers are the power of 16.The first ten symbols are the same as in the decimal system, 0 to 9 and the remaining six symbols are taken from the first six letters of the alphabet sequence, A to F.

Question-8

Find the hexadecimal equivalent of 1100100111012.

Solution:
The hexadecimal equivalent of the binary sequence of 1100100111012
 

1100

1001

1101

C

9

D

 
= C9D16.

Question-9

What is called octal number system?

Solution:
The number system that uses 8 symbols (0 to 7) is called octal number system. The numbers in this system are represented to the base 8 and the positional multiplies are the power of 8.

Question-10

Explain the steps involved in converting octal to binary with example.

Solution:
The weight of an octal number is 8 and the weight of the binary number is 2. The weight of the octal is the third power of binary (23= 8). Hence in octal to binary conversion, each octal digit is converted into its equivalent three digit binary form. For example, convert an octal number 326.548 to its equivalent binary value.
 
= 3 6 .5 4
       
= 011 010 110. 101 100
 
= 11010110.1011002

Question-11

List the types of binary representation of integers.

Solution:
The types of binary representation are sign and magnitude representation, one’s complement and two’s complement.

Question-12

Explain one’s complement with an example.

Solution:
One’s complement represents positive numbers and negative numbers. Hence the value of +2 and -2 will be represented as 0010 in binary form. For example, convert the given number using one’s complement.

-3 (convert number in the positive format)

+3 = 0000 0011 (8 bit form)

In 1’s complement +3= 11111100.

Question-13


Solution:
Two’s Complement: In a binary computer, one practical choice of the complementation constant R is as a power of 2. Since the radix of the system is 2 and R should be less than or equal to the radix, the obvious choices of complementation constants become 1 and 2. To convert the value in to two’s complement, first make the given 8bit digit into one’s complement and add 1 to the LSB.
 

For example, convert 4 using two’s complement.

4 = 0000 0100

Change to one’s complement =

1111 1011

Add one to LSB

1

 

11111100

Hence the result of 4 is 111111002.

Question-14


Solution:
The binary representation of 4 is 0100.

Question-15

List the various representation of data in the memory.

Solution:
The various representations of data in the memory are ASCII code, Unicode and ISCII code.

Question-16

Explain Unicode in detail.

Solution:
It is a standard for multilingual documents. It came from ASCII. It is a shorthand code of 7 to 8 bit to represent the letters of the alphabet in many languages. In this code, more than 65000 different characters are available. It is viewed as a stack of planes and multiple chucks of 128 consecutive codes. Data processing software uses unicode to identify the language of the values.

Question-17

Write the difference between RAM and ROM?

Solution:
RAM refers to random access memory where both read and write operations can take place. But Ram is a volatile memory. Its contents are lost when the power is turned off. ROM refers to read only memory where only read operation can take place. The ROM is a non-volatile memory.




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