# Question-1

Who is a worker?

Solution:
All the people who are involved in economic activities in whatever position are termed as workers. Self employed people and those who help the main workers also fall under the category of workers.

# Question-2

Define worker-population ratio.

Solution:
Worker population ratio is used as an indicator to be used for analyzing the employment situation of a country. in order to find the worker population ratio of India, one has to divide the total number of workers in the country by the total population of the country and multiply by 100.

# Question-3

Raj is going to school. When he is not in school, you will find him working in his farm. Can you consider him as a worker? Why?

Solution:
No, because children below the age of 14 are not allowed to work. They should spend their time studying and not in working because education gives them the necessary skill to achieve higher standards in life.

# Question-4

Compared to urban women, more rural women are found working. Why?

Solution:
Women cook, fetch water and fuel and do a plethora of other activities for which they are not paid and hence are not classified as workers.

# Question-5

Meena is a housewife. Besides taking care of household chores, she works in the cloth shop which is owned and operated by her husband. Can she be considered as a worker? Why?

Solution:
Yes, she can be considered as a worker because her activities contribute to the Gross National Product. Irrespective of her capacity, her contribution is towards the GNP and so she is considered a worker.

# Question-6

The following table shows distribution of workforce in India for the year 1972-73. Analyse it and give reasons for the nature of workforce distribution. You will notice that the data is pertaining to the situation in India 30 years ago!

Solution:
If we notice, the ratio is higher in the rural sector than the urban. The reason for this is that the people in the rural sector have a very limited access to higher income and hence participate in the job market.

# Question-7

Why are regular salaried employees more in urban areas than in rural areas?

Solution:
The reason for this is that the people in the rural sector have a very limited access to higher income and hence participate in the job market. The people of the urban sector have a variety of jobs which can be got to match their qualifications. They take their time and settle in jobs which suit their profile. In the rural sector, people cannot remains unemployed for long because of their poor economic conditions.

# Question-8

Why are less women found in regular salaried employment?

Solution:
The reason for more men being employed as mentioned before is that women do not get paid for many of the activities that they do. In the urban sector, women work lesser than the women in the rural sector because in the urban areas men earn enough and discourage the women from working.

# Question-9

Analyse the recent trends in sectoral distribution of workforce in India.

Solution:
 Industrial Category Place of Residence Sex Total Rural Urban Male Female Primary Sector 76.7 9.6 53.8 75.1 60.4 Secondary Sector 10.8 31.5 17.6 11.8 15.8 Service Sector 12.5 59.1 28.6 13.1 23.8 Total 100 100 100 100 100

# Question-10

Compared to the 1970s, there has hardly been any change in the distribution of workforce across various industries. Comment.

Solution:
There has been a change in the structure of workforce in our country and this change has not had a positive impact. New jobs have mostly been found in the service sector which demands high skill and knowledge of the latest technology. Hence there has been a shift from regular workers into the casual workers zone. Work is getting outsourced and traditional notions of factories or workplace is fast being replaced by home as a workplace. This has adversely affected the individual worker and the people in the rural sector.

# Question-11

Do you think that in the last 50 years, employment generated in the country is commensurate with the growth of GDP in India? How?

Solution:
The last fifty odd years of planned development has targeted expansion of the employment opportunities and hence the increase of the GDP. During the years 1960-2000, the rate of growth of GDP has been more than that of employment, but it has fluctuated. The employment growth has been steady at the rate of 2% per annum.

# Question-12

than in the informal sector? Why?

Solution:
Workers in the informal sector do not get a steady income and have no protection from the government. The workers can be dismissed without any compensation. In the informal sector, the technology used is outdated and there is no proper maintenance of accounts. The workers belonging to this sector generally live in slums and squatters

# Question-13

Who is a casual wage labourer?

Solution:
Workers like construction workers are called casual labourers because they earn their livelihood from casual labour meaning their jobs are not permanent.

# Question-14

How will you know whether a worker is working in the informal sector?

Solution:
The others are called informal workers and they include farmers, self employed individuals, people running small enterprises and those employed in such enterprises.