Loading....
Coupon Accepted Successfully!

 

Question-1

What is meant by environment?

Solution:
The total planetary inheritance and the totality of all resources is called the environment.

Question-2

What happens when the rate of resource extraction exceeds that of their regeneration?

Solution:
Limiting the human population to a limit within the carrying capacity of the environment. If the population grows beyond the carrying capacity, there will be a deviation from the sustainable overall growth.
 
Technological progress should not be input consuming but should be input efficient.
 
The rate of extraction of renewable resources should be within the rate of regeneration of the environment.
 
In case of the non renewable energy sources, the rate of depletion should be lesser than the rate of creation.

The inefficiencies caused by pollution should be addressed and rectified

Question-3

What are the functions of the environment?

Solution:
The four vital functions performed by the environment are:

I. It supplies natural resources: the resources can be both renewable and non-renewable. Renewable resources can be defined as those which do not get depleted on usage. Trees, sunlight etc are examples of renewable sources of energy. Non-renewable resources are those get depleted on consumption. For example fossil fuels.

II. Environment assimilates wastes.

III. It helps in the sustenance of life by providing bio and genetic diversity.

IV. It produces sceneries and landscapes which serve aesthetic purposes.

Question-4

Identify six factors contributing to land degradation in India.

Solution:
Loss of vegetation as a result of deforestation
  High rate of extraction of fodder and fuel
  Shifting cultivation
  Encroachment into forest areas
  Overgrazing and forest fires
  Not adopting soil conservation methods

 

Question-5

Outline the steps involved in attaining sustainable development in India.

Solution:
The terms ‘need’ and the phrase ‘future generations’ in the definitions are the catch phrases. The seminal report- Our Common Future- that gave the above definition explained sustainable development as ‘meeting the basic needs of all and extending to all the opportunity to satisfy their aspirations for a better life’. The needs of everybody require the redistribution of resources and meeting them becomes a moral issue.

Question-6

India has abundant natural resources—substantiate the statement.

Solution:
India has been blessed with an abundance of natural resources like fertile soil, voluminous rivers which have many tributaries and distributaries, forests and plenty of mineral deposits. The Deccan Plateau is rich in black soil and hence the growth of cotton industries is concentrated in that area. The Indo-Gangetic plain from the Arabian Sea to the Bay of Bengal is a very fertile region. It is a very densely populated area and is intensively cultivated. The forests are unevenly distributed but still provide a cover for the wildlife and provide a green cover for the population. India has about 20% of the iron ore deposits in the world. We also have abundance of natural gas and coal. Bauxite, tin, copper, diamond, gold etc are also available in various parts of the country.

Question-7

Is environmental crisis a recent phenomenon? If so, why?

Solution:
The economic growth of the Indian economy has resulted in stress on our natural resources which has inturn affected the human health and well being of our population.

Question-8

State any four pressing environmental concerns of India. Correction for environmental damages involves opportunity costs—explain.

Solution:
Air pollution, water pollution, soil erosion, deforestation and extinction of wildlife are some of the most important environmental issues which India has to address soon. The priority issues are identified as:

1. Land degradation

2. Loss of biodiversity

3. Air pollution especially caused by vehicular traffic in the urban sector

4. Management of fresh water

5. Solid waste management

Question-9

Explain the supply-demand reversal of environmental resources.

Solution:
In the olden days the demand for natural resources was low and hence they did not face any environmental crisis. The rate of resource extraction then was within the rate of regeneration and the generation of wastes was within the absorptive capacity of the environment. Today population explosion and industrialization have made the rate of extraction higher than the rate of regeneration and also the churning of wastes is much more than what the environment can absorb. A reversal of the supply-demand relationship for environment quality has happened. Today the demand is more and the supply is less.

Question-10

Account for the current environmental crisis.

Solution:
The demographical area of India is just 2.5% of the world’s area but we support about 16% of the world population and 20% of the world livestock population. Hence enormous pressures are exerted on our country’s natural resources due to the high population density and the competition in the use of land for pastures, forest, farms, residence and industries.

The per capita forestland in our country has to be .47 hectare in order to meet the basic requirements but at present it is a mere .08 hectare. This results in the felling of about 15 million cubic metre forests over the permissible limit.

The soil erosion is at the rate of 5.3 billion tonnes a year for our country and as a result we lose .8 million tones of nitrogen, 1.8 million tones of phosphorous and 26.3 million tones of potassium every year. The quantity of nutrients lost by India every year due to soil erosion is between 5.8 to 8.4 million tones.

Air pollution is wide spread in our country with vehicles being the main cause. Some areas also have a high concentration of industries and thermal power plants which also cause air pollution. Vehicular emissions are at ground level and hence have a maximum negative impact on the air. The number of motor vehicles was estimated to be about 67 crores in 2003 compared to 3 lakhs in 1951. Personal transport vehicles mainly two wheelers constitute 80% of the vehicular traffic.

We are amongst the top ten most industrialized nations of this world. This industrialization has also certain unwanted and unanticipated impacts such as unplanned urbanization, pollution and a high risk of accidents. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) has given a list of 17industries both small scale and large scale as significantly polluting.

Question-11

Highlight any two serious adverse environmental consequences of development in India. India’s environmental problems pose a dichotomy — they are poverty induced and, at the same time, due to affluence in living standards—is this true?

Solution:
The threat to our environment poses a dichotomy: Poverty induced environmental degradation and there is threat from pollution caused by the wastes of the industrial sector growing at a fast pace. Air pollution, water pollution, soil erosion, deforestation and extinction of wildlife are some of the most important environmental issues which India has to address soon.

Question-12

What is sustainable development?

Solution:
A sustainable development is required in order to allow the future generation to have the quality of life which is atleast on par with the quality of life that is enjoyed by the present generation. United Nations has placed emphasis on the concept of sustainable development.

Question-13

Keeping in view your locality, describe any four strategies of sustainable development.

Solution:
1. Conservation of natural assets

2. Preserving the regeneration capacities of the natural ecological systems of the world.

3. Avoiding adding on the burden of additional costs on the future generations.

Question-14

Explain the relevance of intergenerational equity in the definition of sustainable development.

Solution:
A leading economist called Herman Daley feels that in order to attain sustainable development the following steps have to be taken: Limiting the human population to a limit within the carrying capacity of the environment. If the population grows beyond the carrying capacity, there will be a deviation from the sustainable overall growth.
  Technological progress should not be input consuming but should be input efficient.
  The rate of extraction of renewable resources should be within the rate of regeneration of the environment.
  In case of the non renewable energy sources, the rate of depletion should be lesser than the rate of creation.
  The inefficiencies caused by pollution should be addressed and rectified.

 





Test Your Skills Now!
Take a Quiz now
Reviewer Name