Coupon Accepted Successfully!



Define infrastructure and its categories.

Infrastructure provides the supporting services in the main areas of industrial and agricultural production, transport, trade and commerce. These services include roads, railways, ports, dams, gas and oil pipelines, schools and colleges, sanitary system, irrigation facilities, banks, insurance etc. Some the facilities affect the working system of production directly while the others do it indirectly by helping build the social sector of the country.


Infrastructure can be divided into two categories namely,

1. Economic infrastructure: Related to energy, communication and transportation

2. Social Infrastructure: Related to health and housing


Discuss the relevance of infrastructure.

Infrastructure has great relevance in our lives because:


The efficient working of an industrial economy depends on the infrastructure.
  Transportation of produce, seeds, fertilizers etc are the main needs of modern agriculture.
  Insurance and banking facilities are also required in order to operate on a large scale.
  Infrastructure helps in the economic growth of a country by increasing the efficiency of the factors of production and by improving the quality of living of the people.
  Inadequacy in infrastructure leads to many health problems.
  Proper infrastructure promotes good health and reduces water borne and other communicative diseases.
Transport facilities also ensure in the fast transfer of patients from villages to cities and helps in saving lives.


Discuss the sources of energy.

Sources of energy are of two kinds commercial and non commercial. Commercial sources of energy are coal, petrol and electricity because they are bought and sold. They occupy more than half of the share of energy sources consumed in India. Firewood, agricultural waste and dried dung are sources of non commercial energy. They are non commercial as they are available in the nature. Commercial sources of energy are generally non renewable while non commercial sources are renewable.


Discuss the energy consumption pattern of India.

65% of the total energy consumed in India is commercial energy. Coal has the largest share with 55% followed by oil at 33%, natural gas at 11% and hydro energy at 3%. Non commercial energy sources include cow dung, firewood and agricultural wastes account for around 30% of India’s energy consumption. The important feature of India’s energy consumption is the import dependence on crude oil and petroleum products whose import will rise to almost 100% in the future.


What are the challenges that we face in the power sector today?

Electricity generated by the power stations is not completely consumed by the population a part is also consumed by the power auxiliaries. While transmission of power also, a portion is lost. Some of the challenges that our power sector faces today are:

1. Our installed capacity of power generation capacity is insufficient to feed an economic growth of 7%. In order to meet our electricity demand between 200 and 2012, we have to add 1, 00,000 MW of new capacity of power generators while we are just able to add 20,000MW annually. The installed capacity is also under utilized as it is not managed properly.

2. State Electricity Boards (SEBs), which distribute electricity in our country, lose about Rs.500 billion because of loss due to transmission, wrong pricing and other inefficiencies. In addition to this electricity distributed to farmers also causes losses and electricity is also stolen which adds to the loss incurred.

3. Foreign investors and the private sector are yet to play a major role in power generation.

4. Prolonged power cuts and high tariffs cause public unrest in many parts of India.

5. Shortage of coal supply and raw materials in thermal power plants is a major challenge because thermal plants are our main source of electricity generation.


Discuss the state of Health in our nation.

We have had a substantial increase in the number of doctors, hospitals and beds over the past five decades.
  Government hospitals have been built and they are quite cheap.
  Polio and small pox have been almost eradicated.
  Still, the number of doctors going abroad or working in private institutions are more.
  Rural health care lags behind.
  Traditional forms of medicine have not been revived.
  Health care is costly for the poor.
  Many doctors are still unregistered.
  Private sector hospitals have grown and become very developed but they cater only to the needs of the rich.
Government hospitals have not grown as rapidly as the private ones.


Discuss the state of ISMs.

ISM includes six systems namely, Ayurveda, Siddha, Yoga, Unani, Naturopathy and Homeopathy(Ayush). At present, there are 3004 ISM hospitals, 23,028 dispensaries and 6,11,431 practioners of ISM who are registered. Very little has been done to standardize education or promote research in ISMs. ISMs can solve a lot of our health problems because they are cheap, effective and have no side effects.


Discuss about the indicators of health.

The indicators of health status as pointed out earlier are life expectancy, infant mortality, maternity mortality and nutritional level.
  Scholars feel that the government should get more involved in the health care sector.
  The expenditure on the health care sector is just 5% of the GDP which is totally inadequate when compared to other developed and developing nations.
  A study has pointed out that India has about 17% of the world’s population and an alarming 20% of global burden diseases (GDB).
  In India, more than 50% of GDB is due to communicable diseases like malaria, cholera, diarrhea and tuberculosis.
  Malnutrition and inadequate vaccination accounts for 2.2 million dead children every year.
  Now, only 20% of the population uses public health services.
  A study has revealed that only 38% of PHCs have the required number of doctors and only 30% have adequate supply of medicine.



What is the state of female health in our country?

The child sex ratio has declined from 945 in 1991 to 927 in 2001. This indicated the growing of female foeticide.
  More than 50% of married women between the age group of 15-50 suffer from anaemia.
Iron deficiency and abortions are a major cause of maternity deaths.

Test Your Skills Now!
Take a Quiz now
Reviewer Name