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Question-1

Explain the term ‘infrastructure’.

Solution:
Infrastructure provides the supporting services in the main areas of industrial and agricultural production, transport, trade and commerce. These services include roads, railways, ports, dams, gas and oil pipelines, schools and colleges, sanitary system, irrigation facilities, banks, insurance etc.

Question-2

Explain the two categories into which infrastructure is divided. How are both interdependent?

Solution:
Infrastructure can be divided into two categories namely,

1. Economic infrastructure: Related to energy, communication and transportation

2. Social Infrastructure: Related to health and housing

Question-3

How do infrastructure facilities boost production?

Solution:
Infrastructure provides the supporting services in the main areas of industrial and agricultural production, transport, trade and commerce. These services include roads, railways, ports, dams, gas and oil pipelines, schools and colleges, sanitary system, irrigation facilities, banks, insurance etc. Some the facilities affect the working system of production directly while the others do it indirectly by helping build the social sector of the country.

Question-4

Infrastructure contributes to the economic development of a country. Do you agree? Explain.

Solution:
Infrastructure helps in the economic growth of a country by increasing the efficiency of the factors of production and by improving the quality of living of the people. Inadequacy in infrastructure leads to many health problems. Proper infrastructure promotes good health and reduces water borne and other communicative diseases. Transport facilities also ensure in the fast transfer of patients from villages to cities and helps in saving lives. Hence infrastructure has a great relevance in our lives.

Question-5

What is the state of rural infrastructure in India?

Solution:
Our population is concentrated in the rural areas where people still use biofuels like dung, firewood and crop residues. They have to walk long distances to fetch water and other basic needs. The 2001 census shows that only 56% of the rural households have electricity and about 93% still use biofuels for cooking. Water resources are limited and more than 76% use water from open sources like wells and ponds. A survey conducted by NSSO pointed out that the access to sanitation was only 6%.

Question-6

What is the significance of ‘energy’? Differentiate between commercial and non-commercial sources of energy.

Solution:
Energy is a very important aspect of the economic development of a nation. It is used for cooking, household lighting and hating on a domestic scale and in agriculture, manufacturing and production, transportation of pesticides etc.
 

S. No

Commercial energy

Non-Commercial energy

1.

Commercial sources of energy are coal, petrol and electricity because they are bought and sold.

Firewood, agricultural waste and dried dung are sources of non commercial energy.

2.

Commercial sources of energy are generally non renewable.

Non commercial sources are renewable.

3.

Commercial energy are bought and sold.

Non-commercial energy are available in the nature.

 

Question-7

What are the three basic sources of generating power?

Solution:
Coal, hydro carbon and nuclear energy are the three basic sources of generating power.

Question-8

What do you mean by transmission and distribution losses? How can they be reduced?

Solution:
State Electricity Boards (SEBs), which distribute electricity in our country, lose about Rs.500 billion because of loss due to transmission, wrong pricing and other inefficiencies. In addition to this electricity distributed to farmers also causes losses and electricity is also stolen which adds to the loss incurred.

Question-9

What are the various non-commercial sources of energy?

Solution:
Firewood, agricultural waste and dried dung are sources of non commercial energy.

Question-10

Justify that energy crisis can be overcome with the use of renewable sources of energy.

Solution:
Non renewable energy sources should be used to augment the power supply. Efforts are being taken in order to increase power production. For instance, India is the fifth largest producer of wind energy and for this more than 95% of investment comes from the private sector.

Question-11

How has the consumption pattern of energy changed over the years?

Solution:
65% of the total energy consumed in India is commercial energy. Coal has the largest share with 55% followed by oil at 33%, natural gas at 11% and hydro energy at 3%. Non commercial energy sources include cow dung, firewood and agricultural wastes account for around 30% of India’s energy consumption. The important feature of India’s energy consumption is the import dependence on crude oil and petroleum products whose import will rise to almost 100% in the future.

Question-12

How are the rates of consumption of energy and economic growth connected?

Solution:
The following table shows the sectoral distribution of commercial energy
 

Sector

1953-53

1970-71

1990-91

1996-97

Household 10 12 12 12
Agriculture 01 3 08 09
Industries 40 50 45 42
Transport 28 22 22 22
Others 5 07 13 15

Total

100

100

100

100

While the share of transport has fallen over the years, the share of industry has increased. The rapid economic growth has resulted in the increase in the rate of energy consumption.

Question-13

What problems are being faced by the power sector in India?

Solution:
Some of the challenges that our power sector faces today are:

1. Our installed capacity of power generation capacity is insufficient to feed an economic growth of 7%. In order to meet our electricity demand between 200 and 2012, we have to add 1, 00,000 MW of new capacity of power generators while we are just able to add 20,000MW annually. The installed capacity is also under utilized as it is not managed properly.

2. State Electricity Boards (SEBs), which distribute electricity in our country, lose about Rs.500 billion because of loss due to transmission, wrong pricing and other inefficiencies. In addition to this electricity distributed to farmers also causes losses and electricity is also stolen which adds to the loss incurred.

3. Foreign investors and the private sector are yet to play a major role in power generation.

4. Prolonged power cuts and high tariffs cause public unrest in many parts of India.

5. Shortage of coal supply and raw materials in thermal power plants is a major challenge because thermal plants are our main source of electricity generation.

Question-14

Discuss the reforms which have been initiated recently to meet the energy crisis in India.

Solution:
This sector needs more research, funds, exploration and development efforts. Non renewable energy sources should be used to augment the power supply. Efforts are being taken in order to increase power production. For instance, India is the fifth largest producer of wind energy and for this more than 95% of investment comes from the private sector.

Question-15

What are the main characteristics of health of the people of our country?

Solution:
Over these years, India’s health care sector has expanded in all levels. At the village level, many government hospitals have been set up and many voluntary organizations run private hospitals too. Trained and medical and para-medical professionals take care of these hospitals. In the period 1953-2000, the number of hospitals and dispensaries has grown from 9,300 to 43,300 and the number of beds has increased from 1.2 million to 7.2 million. Nursing personnel have increased from .18lakh to .87 lakhs. Doctors have increased to 5 lakh from .62 lakh. This expansion has resulted in the eradication of small pox and near eradication of leprosy and polio.

Question-16

What is a ‘global burden of disease’?

Solution:
GBD is a measure sued by experts to find the number of premature deaths that occur due to a disease and also the number of years of disability because of it.

Question-17

Discuss the main drawbacks of our health care system.

Solution:
The indicators of health status as pointed out earlier are life expectancy, infant mortality, maternity mortality and nutritional level. Scholars feel that the government should get more involved in the health care sector. The expenditure on the health care sector is just 5% of the GDP which is totally inadequate when compared to other developed and developing nations.

A study has pointed out that India has about 17% of the world’s population and an alarming 20% of global burden diseases (GDB). GDB is a measure sued by experts to find the number of premature deaths that occur due to a disease and also the number of years of disability because of it.

In India, more than 50% of GDB is due to communicable diseases like malaria, cholera, diarrhea and tuberculosis. Every year more than 5 lakh children die due to water borne diseases. Malnutrition and inadequate vaccination accounts for 2.2 million dead children every year.

Now, only 20% of the population uses public health services. A study has revealed that only 38% of PHCs have the required number of doctors and only 30% have adequate supply of medicine.

Question-18

How has women’s health become a matter of great concern?

Solution:
Women are always at a disadvantage as they are given lesser education, wages and health care when compared to men. The child sex ratio has declined from 945 in 1991 to 927 in 2001. This indicated the growing of female foeticide. More than 50% of married women between the age group of 15-50 suffer from anaemia. Iron deficiency and abortions are a major cause of maternity deaths.

Question-19

Describe the meaning of public health. Discuss the major public health measures undertaken by the state in recent years to control diseases.

Solution:
Health is a very important basic right and every citizen has the right to be healthy. The need of the hour is better efficiency of the public health services and the provision of health care facilities for the poor and the rural people. The main aim is to better the standards of living of our people and move towards a better quality of life. Private-public partnership should be forged in health care so that there is reliability, quality, equality and affordability of medicines and drugs. We cannot afford to neglect this deepening divide as it will have a negative impact on our economic growth.

Question-20

List out the six systems of Indian medicine.

Solution:
ISM includes six systems namely, Ayurveda, Siddha, Yoga, Unani, Naturopathy and Homeopathy(Ayush). At present, there are 3004 ISM hospitals, 23,028 dispensaries and 6,11,431 practioners of ISM who are registered. Very little has been done to standardize education or promote research in ISMs. ISMs can solve a lot of our health problems because they are cheap, effective and have no side effects.

Question-21

How can we increase the effectiveness of health care programmes?

Solution:
The government has a constitutional obligation to guide and regulate the health services available to our people. The Union Government initiates policies and plans periodically through the Central Council of Health and Family Welfare. It also collects and distributes money for the development of health care in the states, union territories and other bodies for the implementation of these policies.




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