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Tabular Presentation of Data

  • In a tabular presentation, data are presented in rows (read horizontally) and columns (read vertically).
  • For example, see Table 4.1 below tabulating information about literacy rates. It has 3 rows (for male, female and total) and 3 columns (for urban, rural and total). It is called a 3 × 3 Table giving 9 items of information in 9 boxes called the "cells" of the Table. 
  • Each cell gives information that relates an attribute of gender ("male", "female" or total) with a number (literacy percentages of rural people, urban people and total).
  • The most important advantage of tabulation is that it organises data for further statistical treatment and decision making. Classification used in tabulation is of four kinds:
  • Qualitative
  • Quantitative
  • Temporal and
  • Spatial

Qualitative classification


When classification is done according to qualitative characteristics like social status, physical status, nationality, etc., it is called qualitative classification. For example, in Table 4.1 the characteristics for classification are sex and location which are qualitative in nature.

TABLE 4.1
Literacy in Bihar by sex and location (per cent)

 

Sex

Location

Total

 

Rural

Urban

 

Male

57.70

80.83

60.32

Female

30.03

63.30

33.57

Total

44.42

72.71

47.53

 

 Source: Census of India 2001, Provisional Population Totals.

Quantitative classification


In quantitative classification, the data are classified on the basis of characteristics which are quantitative in nature. In other words these characteristics can be measured quantitatively. For example, age, height, production, income, etc are quantitative characteristics. Classes are formed by assigning limits called class limits for the values of the characteristic under consideration. An example of quantitative classification is Table 4.2.

TABLE 4.2
Distribution of 542 respondents by their age in an election study in Bihar

Age Group

No.of respondents

%

20-30

3

0.55

30-40

61

11.25

40-50

132

24.35

50-60

153

28.24

60-70

140

25.83

70-80

51

9.41

80-90

2

0.37

Total

542

100.00

 

Source: Assembly election Patna central constituency 2005, A.N. Sinha Institute of Social Studies, Patna. Here classifying characteristic is age in years and is quantifiable.

Activities
  • Construct a table presenting data on preferential liking of the students of your class for Star News, Zee News, BBC World, CNN, Aaj Tak and DD News.
  • Prepare a table of
    1. heights (in cm) and
    2. weights (in kg) of students of your class.

Temporal Classification


In this classification time becomes the classifying variable and data are categorised according to time. Time may be in hours, days, weeks, months, years, etc. For example, see Table 4.3.

TABLE 4.3
Yearly sales of a tea shop from 1995 to 2000

 

Years

Sales (Rs in Lakhs)

1995

79.2

1996

81.3

1997

82.4

1998

80.5

1999

100.2

2000

91.2

 

Data Source: Unpublished data. In this table the classifying characteristic is year and takes values in the scale of time.

Activity
  • Go to your library and collect data on the number of books in economics, the library had at the end of the year for the last ten years and present the data in a table.

Spatial classification


When classification is done in such a way that place becomes the classifying variable, it is called spatial classification. The place may be a village/town, block, district, state, country, etc. Here the classifying characteristic is country of the world. Table 4.4 is an example of spatial classification.

Table 4.4
Export from India to rest of the world in one year as share of total export (per cent)

 
Destination Export Share
USA 21.8
Germany 5.6
Other EU 14.7
Uk 5.7
Japan 4.9
Russia 2.1
Other east Europe 0.6
OPEC 10.5
Asia 19.0
Other LDC 5.6
Others 9.5
Total 100.0

(Total Exports: US $ 33658.5 million)


Activity

  • Construct a table presenting data collected from students of your class according to their native states/residential locality.




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