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Question-1

What is meant by program representation?

Solution:
The program representation refers to its presentation style so that the program becomes more readable and presentable.

Question-2

List some of the guidelines to develop a good program.

Solution:
The guidelines to develop a good program are Meaningful names for identifiers.
  Ensure clarity of expressions
  Use comments and indentation

 

Question-3

Explain Ensure clarity of expressions.

Solution:
Expressions carry out the specified actions. Thus they must be clearly understood by the users. There should not be any compromise with the clarity of expressions. avoid programming tricks whose intent will not be obvious to reader
  never sacrifice clarity of expressions even if changed expressions may get you minor gain in machine execution time
  use standard functions in expressions to enhance readability

 

Question-4

What is meant by comments?

Solution:
Comments provide internal documentation of a program. Indentation makes the statements clear and readable.

Question-5

What is the need for inserting blank lines and blank spaces in a program?

Solution:
The insertion of blank lines and blank spaces at appropriate spaces also enhance the program readability. The blank lines are separate declaration blocks, comment boxes, procedures and functions etc.

Question-6

Define pretty printing.

Solution:
When program formatting is done to make a program more readable, it is called pretty printing.

Question-7

Write any three characteristics of a good program.

Solution:
The characteristics of a good program are Effective and efficient: The program produces correct results and is faster, taking into account the memory constraints
  User friendly: The program should be user friendly
  Self documenting code: A good program must have self documenting code. The source code that uses meaningful names for constant, variable and subprogram identifies to clarify their meaning in the program.

 

Question-8

List the various stages of program development process.

Solution:
The various stages of program development process are crack the problems
  code the algorithms
  compile the programs
  execute the programs

 

Question-9

Define guard code.

Solution:
The code which can handle exceptional data errors and operational error is called guard code.

Question-10

Explain Compile time error.

Solution:
Errors that occur during compile time are compiling time errors. When a program compiles, its source code is checked for whether it follows the programming languages rules or not. Two type of errors fall into category of compile time errors. They are syntax error and semantics errors.

Question-11

What is meant by run time error?

Solution:
Error that occurs during the execution of a program is run-time errors. These are harder to detect errors. Some run-time errors stop the execution of the program which is then called program crashed or abnormal terminations.

Question-12

Explain the steps for creating a program.

Solution:
The steps for creating a program are

understand the problem well

analyze the problem

design the program

code the program

test and debug the program

complete the documentation

maintain the program.

 

Question-13

Define documentation.

Solution:
Documentation refers to written descriptions, specifications design, code and comment, internal and external program, which make a program more understandable, readable and more easily modifiable.

Question-14

List the information to be provided for a user documentation.

Solution:
A user documentation should provide the following information like

a. general descriptions

b. run flow and descriptions

c. logic flow

d. program testing

e. file descriptions

f. record layouts

g. output specifications

h. file disposal

i. error messages

j. special run instructions

k. security considerations

l. restart and recovery procedures

Question-15

Give any three uses of documentations.

Solution:
Uses of documentations

useful for technical personnel not only during development, but also during operation and normal maintenance.

Essential during abnormal termination.

Very helpful in initiating and training.

 





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