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Process Management

  • Operating system keeps track of the processors and the status of the processes.
  • The part of the operating system which does this function is called traffic controller
  • The job scheduler is another program which decides on the user priority to use the processor.
  • In Multi user environment users submit their jobs simultaneously but the processor has the capacity to process only a single job at a time.
  • Hence a controlling mechanism is needed to decide on who should get the resources of the processor to process their job.
  • The job scheduler also decides on the time and amount of tune that has to be allotted for each job.
  • Each user is allotted a certain amount of time to use the processor.
  • If a process that has been submitted by a user cannot be completed within the stipulated time, then the job scheduler places the remaining part of the job in a queue and takes the next job.
  • This process continues repeatedly and this technique is called Round Robin method.
  • The dispatcher is another program, which allocates the necessary hardware registers and other resources required to process the job.
  • Finally after processing the job, the processor is reclaimed by the operating system.
  • The process management has various concept like
    • Job scheduling : It performs job based on priority
    • Non - pre emptive scheduling: In this type of scheduling, a scheduled job always completes before another scheduling decision is made. Therefore, finishing order of the jobs is also same as their scheduling order. The scheduling techniques which use non - pre emptive scheduling are :
      • First come first serve scheduling
      • Shortest job first scheduling
      • Priority scheduling
    • Pre emptive scheduling: It is a scheduling decision can be made even while the job is executing and release a processor. The scheduling techniques which use pre emptive scheduling are:
      • Round robin scheduling

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