Read the passage given below and solve the questions based on it.
A recent World Bank research project assembled and analyzed 35 rounds of the National Sample Survey Organization household survey, covering a period from 1951 to 1993-94. These national household surveys are suitable for tracking the poor’s living conditions since the consumption data that have been collected in these surveys are reasonably comparable.
The most recent (1993-94) household survey conducted by the National Sample Survey Organization and based on the poverty lines calculated by the World Bank, reveals that 36.7 per cent of India’s rural population and 30.5 per cent of its city-dwellers lived in poverty–a national average of 35.0 per cent. What is important is that as average Indian living standards rose during the 40 years since 1951 and particularly after the mid-1970s, the poor did not get poorer.
The magnitude of decline in poverty of the last two decades is significant but not dramatic. While the decline of poverty since the early 1970s has been sizable (from an incidence of 56 per cent to 35 per cent in 1993-94), India’s progress in fighting poverty has been modest when compared with some of its Asian neighbors. Between 1970 and 1993, for example, the proportion of Indonesia’s population living in poverty dropped from 58 to 8 per cent, an annual decline of nearly 10 per cent.
As of 1993-94, India’s poverty continues to be predominantly rural although rural poverty declined faster than urban poverty over 1951-88. Moreover, the decline in national poverty seems to have been driven mostly by the decline in rural poverty — not surprising given that 74 per cent of India’s population lives in rural areas. Many studies suggest that the poor perceive themselves to be better off now than in previous decades. However, these studies also point to pockets of increasing impoverishment.
What can be deduced about the poverty scenario in India before 1950?