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Pronouns are words used in place of noun or other pronoun. Pronouns like “he,” “which,” “none,” and “you” are used to make sentences less cumbersome and less repetitive.

Grammarians classify pronouns into several types, including the personal pronoun, the demonstrative pronoun, the interrogative pronoun, the indefinite pronoun, the relative pronoun, the reflexive pronoun, and the intensive pronoun.

Types of Personal Pronouns

A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person, number, gender.

Various ways in which they are used are illustrated below.







I teach Divya

Divya teaches me


We teach Divya

Divya teaches us

2nd person


You teach Divya

Divya teaches you


You teach Divya

Divya teaches you

3rd person


He/She/It teaches Divya

Divya teaches him/her/it


They teach Divya

Divya teaches them

It is to be noted that ‘IT’ is an impersonal pronoun and is used for the following:

  1. Inanimate objects
  2. Animals without name
  3. Babies without name
  4. Human beings (when the gender is not clear).
Subjective Personal Pronouns  Objective Personal Pronouns  Possessive Personal Pronouns
Indicates that the pronoun is acting as the subject of the sentence. Indicates that the pronoun is acting as an object of a verb, or preposition. Indicates that the pronoun is acting as who owns a particular object or person.
“I,” “you,” “she,” “he,” “it,” “we,” “you,” “they.” “Me,” “you,” “her,” “him,” “it,” “us,” “you,” and “them.” “Mine,” “yours,” “hers,” “his,” “its,” “ours,” and “theirs.”

Demonstrative Pronouns

A demonstrative pronoun points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun. “This” and “these” refer to things that are nearby either in space or in time, while “that” and “those” refer to things that are farther away in space or time.

The demonstrative pronouns are “this,” “that,” “these,” and “those.” “This” and “that” are used to refer to singular nouns and “these” and “those” are used to refer to plural nouns.

It is also important to note that “that” can also be used as a relative pronoun.

Interrogative Pronouns

An interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns are “who,” “whom,” “which,” “what” and the compounds formed with the suffix “ever” (“whoever,” “whomever,” “whichever,” and “whatever”). Note that “who,” “whom,” or “which” can also be used as a relative pronoun.

“Who,” “whom,” and occasionally “which” are used to refer to people, and “which” and “what” are used to refer to things and to animals.

“Who” acts as the subject of a verb, while “whom” acts as the object of a verb,

Relative Pronouns

A relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are “who,” “whom,” “that,” and “which”. Compounds formed with the suffix “ever” (“whoever,” “whomever,” “whichever,”) are also relative pronouns.

Indefinite Pronouns

An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun referring to an identifiable but not specified person or thing. An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some.

Commonly used indefinite pronouns are “all,” “another,” “any,” “anybody,” “anyone,” “anything,” “each,” “everybody,” “everyone,” “everything,” “few,” “many,” “nobody,” “none,” “one,” “several,” “some,” “somebody,” and “someone.”

Reflexive Pronouns

A reflexive pronoun refers back to the subject of the clause or sentence.

Reflexive pronouns are “myself,” “yourself,” “herself,” “himself,” “itself,” “ourselves,” “yourselves,” and “themselves.”

Errors in Pronouns

  1. Aditi bought an eclair and a pastry and she ate
  2. it quickly. [What does this ‘it’ refer to]. This is pronoun-antecedent (the noun for which we use pronoun) ambiguity.
  3. As people age, the concern a person has change as well. This is pronoun-antecedent inconsistency.
  4. Nitika was surprised that despite working hard he did not get a promotion.
    Pronoun must agree with its antecedent in number and gender.

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