It is a hand held epiluminescence microscope having a wide application in trichology called as Trichoscope.
It is used to study scalp morphology, hair roots and the structural defects.
It shows characteristic patterns specific for diseases eg.
Androgenetic alopecia--- brown halo around the hair follicle
Alopecia Areata---- white-yellow monomorphous dots.
Scalp Psoriasis---- tightly coiled capillary loops
Seborrhoea ---- goblets of sebum and crusted scaling
Hair shafts structural defects can be readily identified with a dermascope.
Lice, nits, peripilar casts(pseudo nits) can be easily differentiated.
Pulled hairs are covered with a glass slide and examined with a dermascope.
Anagen hair: It has thick, dark base with preserved inner and outer sheaths. The bulb is at an angle of 20 degree with shaft.
Catagen hair: The bulb is rough with loose and thick outer and inner sheath.
Telogen hair: It is thin,club shaped with smooth contour. The shaft is straight, tapering, non pigmented.
Dystropic/ dysplastic hair: Lack root sheaths, or even bulb. Irregular tapering lower end. Found in normal individuals due to plucking. It is also known as traumatized anagen hair. It lacks both outer and inner sheath and has an angulated bulb.
True dystrophic: Seen in individuals who have severe disturbance of hair keratinization eg: alopecia areata, drug induced anagen effluvium.