Loading....
Coupon Accepted Successfully!

Medicine

Open Flashcards

Endocrine

Question
16 out of 33
 

Which of the following monoclonal antibody is being used in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy (PNQ)

 

 
A Tocilizumab’s
B Etanercept

 

C Ranibizumab
D Rituximab

 

 

Ans. C

Ranicuzimab

Extra Edge: Do annual funduscopy for all patients (AIIMS Nov 09)

1). Retinopathy

a. Non proliferative

i. Background retinopathy:

● Microaneurysms (dots)

● Hemorrhages (blots)

Pathophysiology of non-proliferative RP is Retinal ischemia

ii. Pre-proliferative retinopathy: i. Cotton wool spots (infarcts) ii. Hemorrhages.

b. Proliferative retinopathy: New vessels form which can lead to retinal detachment, vitreous hemorrhage.

 

2). Maculopathy: This is often not visible at an early stage. It leads to profound in visual acuity.

Treatment:

a. Laser photo coagulation for vision preservation

b. Proliferative RP: panretinal laser photo coagulation

c. Macular oedema: Focal laser photocoagulation.

3). Cataracts: May be juvenile 'snowflake' form, or 'senile'-which occur earlier in diabetic subjects

4). Rubeosis iridis: New vessels on iris: occurs late and may lead to glaucoma.

 

Recent Advances: Ruboxistaurin is used for prevention of both diabetic nephropathy & ophthalmopathy. Its name is not there in Harrison 18th ed. also !!!.

 

Recent advances:

1. Proliferative RP can be treated with intraocular injection of a vascular endothelial growth factor antagonist.

2. Either bevacizumab or ranibizumab is administered by direct injection into the vitreous cavity.

3. These antibodies cause the regression of neovascular membranes by blocking the action of vascular endothelial growth factor, thereby improving visual acuity.

 

Extra Edge: Pegaptanib sodium injection is an anti-angiogenic medicine for the treatment of neovascular (wet) age-related macular degeneration (AMD). This is a new drug not given in Harrison 18th edition also!!!

Endocrine Flashcard List

33 flashcards
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12)
13)
14)
15)
16)
17)
18)
19)
20)
21)
22)
23)
24)
25)
26)
27)
28)
29)
30)
31)
32)
33)