A 57-yrs-old woman discovers a breast mass which is biopsied and found to be carcinoma. After her treatment, she assembles her family and attempts to encourage them to obtain regular examination and mammograms. Regarding the risk of breast cancer, which of the following statements is true?
|A||Breast cancer occurs more commonly among women of the lower social classes|
|B||A history of breast cancer in a first-degree family relative is associated with a fourfold increase in risk.|
|C||Women with a first birth after age 30 years have approximately twice the risk of those with a first birth before age 18.|
|D||Cigarette smoking increases the risk of breast cancer.|
Risk Factors for Breast Cancer
Factors Important in Populations
Age at first birth
Exogenous hormone use or exposure
Factors Important in Individual Patients
Gender (female >> malE.
Age (steady increase with agE.
Family history (mothers, sisters, daughters)
History of previous breast cancer (noninvasive or invasive, ipsilateral or contralateral)
Histologic Risk Factors
Proliferative breast disease
Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH)
Atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH)
Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS)
Age and Gender
a. Age is probably the most important risk factor that clinicians use in everyday clinical practice.
b. The age-adjusted incidence of breast cancer continues to increase with advancing age of the female population.
c. First degree relatives are at two to three fold increased risk of development of cancer breast.