Male Genital Tract
A needle biopsy of prosrate of an old man reveals increased numbers of glandular elements and stromal tissue. The glands are found to have a double layer of epithelial cells. Prominent nuclei or back-to –back glands are not seen. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis? (AIIMS Nov 2014)
|B||Atypical small acinar proliferation|
|C||High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia|
|D||Benign prostatic hyperplasia|
a. Infarcts are localized areas of ischemic coagulative necrosis.
b. They can be classified on the basis of their color into either red or white infarcts, or by the presence or absence of bacterial contamination into either septic or bland infarcts.
c. White infarcts, also referred to as pale or anemic infarcts, are usually the result of arterial occlusion.
d. They are found in solid organs such as the heart, spleen, and kidneys.
e. The morphology is usually a wedge shape with tip indicating the site of the vessel occluded.
f. Red or hemorrhagic infarcts, in contrast, may result from either arterial or venous occlusion.
g. They occur in organs with a dual blood supply, such as the lung, or in organs with extensive collateral circulation, such as the small intestine and brain.
h. These infarcts are hemorrhagic because there is bleeding into the necrotic area from the adjacent arteries and veins that remain patent.
i. Hemorrhagic infarcts also occur in organs in which the venous outflow is obstructed (venous occlusion).
j. Examples of this include torsion of the ovary or testis.
k. In the latter, twisting of the spermatic cord occludes the venous outflow, but the arterial inflow remains patent because these arterial blood vessels have much thicker walls.
l. This results in venous infarction.
m. Testicular torsion is usually the result of physical trauma in an individual with a predisposing abnormality, such as abnormal development of the gubernaculum testis.