A woman with infertility receives an ovary transplant from her sister who is an identical Twin. What type of graft it is (AIPG 2011)
1. An allograft or allogeneic transplant refers to when transplanted cells, tissues or organs are sourced from a genetically non-identical member of the same species.
2. Most human tissue and organ transplants are allografts.
3. In contrast, a transplant from another species is called a xenograft.
4. When a transplanted organ or tissue from a genetically identical donor, i.e. an identical twin, is termed an isograft.
5. Finally, a tissue is transplanted from one site to another on the same patient, it is termed an autograft.
6. Allografts and xenografts will be recognised by the recipient's immune system as foreign and will therefore be attacked in a process termed rejection.
7. This does not occur in autografts or true isografts, although in practice, transplants between identical twins are usually covered with immunosuppressants in case they are not 100% genetically identical.