IVC drains the venous blood to the right atrium from all parts of the body below the diaphragm. It is formed by the union of the right and left common iliac veins on the right side of the body of L5 vertebrae. It enters the thorax by passing through vena caval opening in central tendon of diaphragm at T8level. Its orifice into right atrium is guarded by a rudimentary Eustachian valve.
Tributaries of IVC are :-
Common iliac veins unite to form IVC.
Right gonadal (testicular or ovarian) vein; left gonadal vein (testicular/ovarian) drains into left renal vein.
Right suprarenal (adrenal) vein, left suprarenal vein drains into left renal vein.
Renal veins; on left side, renal vein receives left gonadal (testicular/ovarian) and left suprarenal (adrenal) veins. Inferior phrenic veins.
Third and fourth lumbar veins.
Thrombosis ofIVC causes edema of legs and back. The collateral circulation between SVC and IVC is established through the superficial or deep veins or both. The participating main superficial veins include: (i) superficial epigastric, (ii) lateral thoracic; and (iii) thoracoepigastric. Other veins are superior epigastric, inferior epigastric, superficial and deep circumflex iliac, internal thoracic, posterior intercostal, external pudendal and lumbo-vertebral veins. Deep veins involved are azygos, hemiazygous and lumbar veins (including ascending lumbar).
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