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Male Reproductive Organs

The male reproductive organs include -
  1. External genitalia: - Penis, scrotum, testis, epididymis, and part of ductus deferens.
  2. Internal genitalia: - Part of ductus deferens, seminal vesicle, ejaculatory ducts and prostate.


  1. Penis is the male organ of copulation. The penis has a root and a body.
  2. The root of penis is situated in the superficial perineal pouch, attached to the inferior surface of the perineal membrane. It consists of three masses of erectile tissue: bulb of penis and two crura. Each crus continues forward to become the corpus cavernosum (in the body) and bulb is the posterior end of the corpus spongiosum (of the body).
  3. Body of penis is the free portion of the penis. It is composed of three elongated masses of erectile tissues:-right and left corpora covernosa, and median corpus spongiosum. Corpora covernosa are enveloped by tunica albugineaand corpus spongiosum is also surrounded by tunica albuginea. The penile urethra runs through the whole length of the corpus spongiosum from the bulb at the back to the terminal expanded part of corpus spongiosum, called glans penis.
  4. The superficial fascia of penis differentiates into an outer loose areolar tissue and an inner well-defined membrane known as fascia penis or buck's fascia. The areolar tissue is devoid of fat, extends into the substance of the prepuce and contains on the dorsal surface unpaired superficial dorsal vein of the penis. Membranous layer (fascia penis) is a prolongation of Colle's fascia of perineum. Membranous layer (fascia penis) extends upto neck of penis where it blends with the fibrous sheath of the corpora cavernosum and corpus spongiosum. Proximally it is continuous with fascia scarpa of anterior abdominal wall and dartos muscle of scrotum.

Blood supply and lymphatic drainage

Arterial supply of the penis comes from following two arteries:-

  1. Internal pudendal artery: - Through its three branches: (i) deep artery of penis, (ii) dorsal artery of penis and (iii) artery of the bulb of the penis.
  2. Femoral artery: - Through is branch superficial external pudendal.

Lymphatics from glans drain into the deep inguinal nodes. From rest of the penis lymph drains into the superficial inguinal nodes.


Nerve supply

  1. Somatic supply: - Skin of the penis is supplied by pudendal nerve via dorsal nerve of penis and posterior scrotal nerve. A small area on the dorsum of proximal penis (root) is supplied by ilioinguinal nerve. The muscles of root of penis (bulbocavernosus and ischiocavernosus are supplied by the perineal branch of pudendal nerve.
  2. Parasympathetic: - It is responsible for erection and is derived from pelvic splanchnic nerves (nervi erigentes (S2, S3, S4). Parasympathetic stimulation causes vasodilatationand increased blood flow to the cavernous tissue of all three corpora (right and left corpora covernosa and corpus spongiosum). This results in erection.
  3. Sympathetic: - It is responsible for ejaculation (initial part) and is derived via superior and inferior hypogastric plexus.

Description: C:\Users\ashwani\Pictures\ashwani sir\GraysAnat 40th ed\section 8\fig76.18A.jpeg


  1. The scrotum is a cutaneous bag containing the right and left testes, the epididymis and the lower parts of spermatic cords. The left half of the scrotum hung a little lower than the right. The layers of scrotum from outside to inside are :-
    1. Skin
    2. Dartos muscle (smooth muscle layer) continous with Colle's fascia of perineum posteriorly and Scarpa's fascia and Camper's fascia anteriorly.
    3. The external spermatic fascia, extension from external oblique.
    4. The cremasteric muscle, continuous with fascia from internal oblique.
    5. The internal spermatic fascia, continuous with fascia from fascia transversalis.
  2. Anterior one-third of scrotum is supplied by ilioinguinalnerve (L1) and genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve (L1). Posterior two-third of scrotum is supplied by posterior scrotal nerves (S3) and perineal branch of posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh (S3). The dartos muscle is supplied by the genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve.
  3. Hydrocele is a condition in which fluid accumulates in the process vaginalis of peritoneum. Tapping of hydrocele involves removing the excess fluid from tunica vaginalis. The layers penetrated (from outside in) are: - Skin, dartos muscle, external spermatic fascia, cremasteric muscle and fascia, internal spermatic fascia and parietal layer of tunica vaginalis.

Description: C:\Users\ashwani\Pictures\ashwani sir\GraysAnat 40th ed\section 8\fig76.4.jpeg


  1. Testis is the male gonad. It is suspended in the scrotum by spermatic cord. Left testis is slightly (1 cm) lower than the right one. The average testicular dimensions are 5 cm (length), 2.5 cm (breath), 3cm (anteroposterior diameter or thickness) and 10.5-14 gm (weight). The epididymis is attached to its posterolateral surface. Vas (ductus) deference arises from lower pole of epididymis. Lateral part of epididymis is separated from testis by an extension of cavity of tunica vaginalis, called sinus of epididymis. There is small oval body attached to upper pole of testis called appendix of testis, a remnant of para mesonephric duct.
  2. Testis is covered by three coats (from outside to inside):-
    1. tunica vaginalis (which has a parietal and a visceral layer);
    2. tunica albuginea; and
    3. tunica vasculosa. Outside these three coats, there are layers of scrotum.


Testis consists of200-300 lobules. Each lobules consists of2-3 seminiferous tubules(where spermatozoa are formed). Seminiferous tubules join at the apex of lobules to form straight tubules, which anastomose with each other to form rete testis. Which emerge from upper pole and enter the epididymis. Each tubule becomes highly coiled to form a lobe of the head of epididymis. All tubules end in a single duct which is coiled on itself to form the body and tail of the epididymis. It is continuous with ductus deference.


Arterial supply


Testes are supplied by testicular artery, a branch of abdominal aorta, arises at L2 vertebral level.


Venous drainage


The veins emerging from the testis and epididymis form the pampiniform plexus. Anterior part of the plexus is arranged around the testicular artery, middle part around ductus deferens and its artery, and posterior part is isolated. The plexus condenses into 4 veins at the superficial inguinal ring and 2 veins at the deep inguinal ring. Ultimately, one vein is formed which drains into inferior vena cava on the right and into left renal vein on the left side.

Lymphatic drainage


Lymphatics from the testis run back with the testicular artery to para-aortic nodesalongside the aorta at the level of origin of testicular arteries (L2 vertebra).

Epididymis and Ductus Deferens

  1. Epididymis is a firm structure, attached behind the testis. Its upper end is called head. Head is made up of highly coiled efferent ductules coming for upper end of testis. The middle part is called the body and lower part is called tail. The body and tail are made up of a single duct, the duct of the epididymis which is highly coiled on itself. At the lower end of tailthis duct becomes continuous with the ductus deferens.
  2. Ductus deferens (Vas deferens) is a direct continuation of the canal of the epididymis. It is a thick-walled muscular tube with a narrow lumen except at the terminal dilated part called the ampulla. It enters the spermatic cord, passes through the inguinal canal. At the deep inguinal ring, it leaves the spermatic cord and hooks around the lateral side of inferior epigastric artery. In the region ischeal spine, it crosses ureter and then bends medially to reach the base of bladder. The part lying behind the bladder is dilated to form ampulla, and there is no intervening peritoneum between bladder base and ductus deferens. At the base of prostate it is joined by the duct of seminal vesicle to form ejaculatory duct.
  3. The epididymis is supplied by testicular artery, a branch of descending aorta. Ductus deferens is supplied by artery to ductus deferens, a branch of superior vesical artery, occasionally artery to ductus deferens may arise from inferior vesical artery.

Spermatic Cord

  1. The spermatic cord consists of a tubular sheath extending from the deep inguinal ring to the upper part of posterior border of testis. Constituents of spermatic cord are –
    1. Ductus deferens (Vas deferens )
    2. Arteries:-Testicular artery, cremastericartery, artery to ductus deferens.
    3. Veins:-Pampiniform plexus.
    4. Nerves:-Genital branch of genitofemoral nerve and sympathetic plexus around arteries.
    5. Others - Lymphatics, remains of the processus vaginalis.
  2. Covering of spermatic cord, from within outwards, are: -
    1. internal spermatic fascia,
    2. cremasteric fascia and
    3. external spermatic fascia.



It is an accessory gland of the male reproductive system. Its average dimensions are 4 cm (transverse diameter or width), 3 cm (vertical diameter or length), and 2 cm (thickness or anteroposterior diameter). It has an apex, a base and four surfaces: - anterior, posterior and two inferolateral. Apex rests on urogenital diaphragm. Base is related to bladder neck. Posterior surface is separated from rectum by the fascia of Denonvilliers which is the obliterated rectovesical pouch of peritoneum. Posterior surface is palpated on per rectal examination. Anterior surface lies behind the pubic symphysis and is separated from it by extraperitoneal fat in retropubic space (cave of Retzius). Inferolateral surfaces are related to side wall of pelvis, levator ani, retropubic space and fat.




The prostate is incompletely divided into five lobes. The anterior lobe lies in front of the urethra and devoid of glandular tissue hence adenoma seldom occurs here. The Median lobe (Middle lobe) is situated between prostatic urethra and ejaculatory duct. Its upper part is related to trigone bladder. It contains glandular tissue and is most common site of benign prostatic hyperplasia and adenoma. The Posterior lobe is situated behind the urethra and below the ejaculatory duct. It also contains glandular tissue and is the most common site for prostatic carcinoma. The right and left lateral lobes lie on either side of urethra. Lateral lobe contains many glands.

Mc Neal's classification

According to Me Neal, the gland is divided into;-

  1. Peripheral zone (70%); - Lies posteriorly (corresponds to posterior lobe) and most common zone for carcinoma.
  2. Central zone (25%); - It lies posterior to urethra and above ejaculatory duct (corresponds to median lobe).
  3. Periurethral transition zone (5%); - Corresponds to anterior and lateral lobes.

Histological features

  1. In section, the glandular tissue of the prostate is seen in the form of numerous follicles that are lined by columnar epithelium. The follicles drain into 12 to 20 excretory ducts that open into the prostatic urethra. The ducts are lined by a double layered epithelium. The superficial (luminal) layer is columnar and the deeper layer is cuboidal. Small rounded masses of uniform or lamellated structure are found within the lumen of the follicles. These are called corpora amylacea or amyloid bodies. They are more abundant in older individuals and consist of glycoprotein. They may be calcified.
  2. Prostate is surrounded by a true capsule and a false capsule. Prostatic venous plexus lies between true and false capsules.
  3. During prostectomy both capsules (true and false) are left behind as prostatic venous plexus lies between true and false capsule (in contrast during thyroidectomy false capsule is left behind and thyroid is removed along with true capsule as venous plexus lies deep to true capsule)

Arterial supply


Blood supply is through:-

  1. Inferior vesical artery
  2. Middle rectal artery
  3. Internal pudendal artery

Venous drainage


The veins form a prostatic plexus in the space between the true and false capsule. The plexus communicates with vesical plexus and internal pudendal vein. It receives deep dorsal vein of penisin front. Finally it drains into internal iliac vein and vesical vein. There is valveless communication between prostatic plexus and vertebral venous plexus (Batson plexus) through which prostatic carcinoma can spread to vertebral column and skull.

Description: C:\Users\ashwani\Pictures\ashwani sir\GraysAnat 40th ed\section 8\fig75.7.jpeg

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