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Biochemistry

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Carbohydrates

Question
22 out of 40
 

Acetyl Co can be converted to all except: (AIIMS

May 2009)



A Glucose
B Fatty acid

C Cholesterol
D Ketone

Ans. B Fatty acid Ref: Harper 28th edition, Page 143, 224, 184

a. Gluconeogenesis is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates such as lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acids.

b. It is one of the two main mechanisms the body uses to keep blood glucose levels from dropping too low (hypoglycemia).

c. The other means of maintaining blood glucose levels is through the degradation of glycogen (glycogenolysis).

d. Gluconeogenesis is a ubiquitous process, present in plants, animals, fungi, and other microorganisms.

e. In animals, gluconeogenesis takes place mainly in the liver and, to a smaller extent, in the cortex of kidneys.

f. This process occurs during periods of fasting, starvation, low-carbohydrate diets, or intense exercise and is highly endergonic.

g. Gluconeogenesis is often associated with ketosis.

h. Gluconeogenesis is also a target of therapy for type II diabetes, such as metformin, which inhibit glucose formation and stimulate glucose uptake by cells.

i. Lactate is transported back to the liver where it is converted into pyruvate by the Cori cycle using the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase.

j. Pyruvate, the first designated substrate of the gluconeogenic pathway, can then be used to generate glucose.

k. All citric acid cycle intermediates, through conversion to oxaloacetate, amino acids other than lysine or leucine, and glycerol can also function as substrates for gluconeogenesis.

l. Transamination or deamination of amino acids facilitates entering of their carbon skeleton into the cycle directly (as pyruvate or oxaloacetate), or indirectly via the citric acid cycle.

Fatty acids cannot be converted into glucose in animals. However odd-chain fatty acids, which yield propionyl CoA, a precursor for succinylCoA can be converted to glucose.

Carbohydrates Flashcard List

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