Alcohol is recognized as one of the etiological factors for avascular necrosis of the head of the femur. All the following are possible mechanisms of action in inducing avascular changes in the bone except
|A||Ethanol is directly toxic to the bone|
|B||Fat emboli from the ethanol induced fatty liver|
|C||Increased blood cortisol levels|
|D||Altered fat metabolism|
Ethanol is directly toxic to the bone
Ethanol abuse presents a clear dose-response relationship with osteonecrosis and consumption of more than 400cc weekly results in a 10 fold greater risk for osteonecrosis, and all the mechanisms mentioned excepting the fact that ethanol is directly toxic to bone are the possible mechanisms of action.