Diseases & National Health Programme
All are included in NRHM except-
|A||Strengthening of JSY|
|B||Formation of patient and social welfare societies|
|C||State and district health mission|
|D||Recruitment and training of ASHA|
All of the above options except formation of patient and social welfare societies are strategies of NRHM. Some important facts about NRHM which needs to be memorized:
National Rural Health Mission –
a. The National Rural Health Mission (2005-12) seeks to provide effective healthcare to rural population throughout the country with special focus on 18 states, which have weak public health indicators and/or weak infrastructure.
b. These 18 States are Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Jammu & Kashmir, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Madhya Pradesh, Nagaland, Orissa, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttaranchal and Uttar Pradesh.
c. The Mission is an articulation of the commitment of the Government to raise public spending on Health from 0.9% of GDP to 2-3% of GDP. It aims to undertake architectural correction of the health system to enable it to effectively handle increased allocations as promised under the National Common Minimum Programme and promote policies that strengthen public health management and service delivery in the country.
d. It has as its key components provision of a female health activist in each village; a village health plan prepared through a local team headed by the Health & Sanitation Committee of the Panchayat; strengthening of the rural hospital for effective curative care and made measurable and accountable to the community through Indian Public Health Standards (IPHS); and integration of vertical Health & Family Welfare Programmes and Funds for optimal utilization of funds and infrastructure and strengthening delivery of primary healthcare.
e. It seeks to revitalize local health traditions and mainstream AYUSH into the public health system.
f. It aims at effective integration of health concerns with determinants of health like sanitation & hygiene, nutrition, and safe drinking water through a District Plan for Health.
g. It seeks decentralization of programmes for district management of health.
h. It seeks to address the inter-State and inter-district disparities, especially among the 18 high focus States, including unmet needs for public health infrastructure.
i. It shall define time-bound goals and report publicly on their progress.
j. It seeks to improve access of rural people, especially poor women and children, to equitable, affordable, accountable and effective primary healthcare.
a. Reduction in Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) and Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR)
b. Universal access to public health services such as Women’s health, child health, water, sanitation & hygiene, immunization, and Nutrition.
c. Prevention and control of communicable and non-communicable diseases, including locally endemic diseases
d. Access to integrated comprehensive primary healthcare
e. Population stabilization, gender and demographic balance.
f. Revitalize local health traditions and mainstream AYUSH
g. Promotion of healthy life styles
A. National Level:
a. Infant Mortality Rate reduced to 30/1000 live births
b. Maternal Mortality Ratio reduced to 100/100,000
c. Total Fertility Rate reduced to 2.1
d. Malaria mortality reduction rate –50% upto 2010, additional 10% by 2012
e. Kala Azar mortality reduction rate: 100% by 2010 and sustaining elimination until 2012
f. Filaria/Microfilaria reduction rate: 70% by 2010, 80% by 2012 and elimination by 2015
g. Dengue mortality reduction rate: 50% by 2010 and sustaining at that level until 2012
h. Japanese Encephalitis mortality reduction rate: 50% by 2010 and sustaining at that level until 2012
i. Cataract Operation: increasing to 46 lakhs per year until 2012.
j. Leprosy prevalence rate: reduce from 1.8/10,000 in 2005 to less than 1/10,000 thereafter
k. Tuberculosis DOTS services: Maintain 85% cure rate through entire Mission period.
l. Upgrading Community Health Centers to Indian Public Health Standards
m. Increase utilization of First Referral Units from less than 20% to 75% Engaging 250,000 female Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) in 10 States.
B. Community Level:
a. Availability of trained community level worker at village level, with a drug kit for generic ailments
b. Health Day at Anganwadi level on a fixed day/month for provision of immunization, ante/post natal checkups and services related to mother & child healthcare, including nutrition.
c. Availability of generic drugs for common ailments at Sub-centre and hospital level
d. Good hospital care through assured availability of doctors, drugs and quality services at PHC/CHC level
e. Improved access to Universal Immunization through induction of Auto Disabled Syringes, alternate vaccine delivery and improved mobilization services under the programme