All are reversible pathological changes except: (LQ)
|C||Visible vacuoles in cytoplasm|
a. Reversible cell injury-Ischemia decreases the oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria causing reduction in ATP which ultimately results in.
i. Cellular swelling
ii. Loss of microvilli
iii. Bleb formation
iv. ER swelling
v. Myelin figures
vi. Dispersion of ribosomes
vii. Clumping of nuclear chromatin
vii. Small density lipid deposits
All these disturbances are reversible, if oxygen is restored.
b. Irreversible cell injury-Associated morphologically with severe swelling of mitochondria, extensive damage to plasma membranes and swelling of lysosomes which ruptures and autolysis begins. Large densities appear with lysis In ER and nuclear changes consists of pyknosis or karyolysis Or karyorrhexis
c. Consistent characteristics of irreversibility is mitochondrial dysfunction causing ATP depletion but membrane damage is a central factor in pathogenesis of irreversibility and calcium is an important mediator of the biochemical and morphological alterations leading to cell death.