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Rheumatology

Question
8 out of 13
 

All are true about Synovial fluid except? (AIIMS May 2010)


A Type A synovial cells produces synovial fluid

B Exhibits non newtonian flow

C Has Hyaluronic acid and Lubricin

D All are true

Ans. A Type A synovial cells produces synovial fluid

Synovial fluid (Basic physiology)

i. Synovial tissue is sterile and composed of vascularized connective tissue that lacks a basement membrane.

ii. Two cells type (type A and type B) are present: Type B produce synovial fluid.

iii. Synovial fluid is made of hyaluronic acid and lubricin, proteinases, and collagenases.

iv. Synovial fluid exhibits non-Newtonian flowcharacteristics; the viscosity coefficient is not a constant and the fluid is not linearly viscous.

v. Synovial fluid has thixotropic characteristics; viscosity decreases and the fluid thins over a period of continued stress.

vi. Normal synovial fluid contains hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid).

vii. Hyaluronan is synthesized by the synovial membrane and secreted into the joint cavity to increase the viscosity and elasticity of articular cartilages and lubricate the surfaces between synovium and cartilage.

viii. Synovial fluid contains lubricin secreted by synovial cells. It is chiefly responsible for so-called boundary-layer lubrication, which reduces friction between opposing surfaces of cartilage.

ix. Its functions are :reducing friction by lubricating the joint, absorbing shocks, and supplying oxygen and nutrients to and removing carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes from the chondrocytes within articular cartilage.

x. It also contains phagocytic cells that remove microbes and the debris that results from normal wear and tear in the joint.

Classification

Synovial fluid can be classified into normal, noninflammatory, inflammatory, septic, and hemorrhagic:

Classification of synovial fluid in an adult knee joint

Normal

Noninflammatory

Inflammatory

Septic

Hemorrhagic

Volume (ml)

<3.5

>3.5

>3.5

>3.5

>3.5

Viscosity

High

High

Low

Mixed

Low

Clarity

Clear

Clear

Cloudy

Opaque

Mixed

Color

Colorless/straw

Straw/yellow

Yellow

Mixed

Red

WBC/mm3

<200

200-2,000

2,000-75,000

>100,000

Same as blood

Polys (%)

<25

<25

>50

>75

Same as blood

Gram stain

Negative

Negative

Negative

Often positive

Negative

Rheumatology Flashcard List

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