All of the following are true about pleural effusion, Except: (select two options) (PGI May 2009)
|A||Horizontal fluid level|
|B||Decreased lung volume|
|C||Decreased heart sounds|
|D||Decreased chest movement|
Horizontal fluid level, E . Succussion splash
Symptoms of pleural effusion: Asymptomatic- or dyspnea.
1). Decreased expansion;
2). Stony dull Q percussion note;
3). Diminished breath sounds Q occur on the affected side.
4). Tactile vocal fremitus and vocal resonance are decreased.
5). Above the effusion, where lung is compressed, there may be bronchial breathing and aegophony Q (bleating character of vocal resonance) and bronchophony.
6). With large: effusions there may be tracheal deviation Q away from the effusion.
7). Decreased heart sounds are seen in left sided pleural effusion.
Extra Edge: Horizontal fluid level & Succussion splash both are feature of hydropneumothorax.
1). Ultrasound is useful in identifying the presence of pleural fluid and in guiding diagnostic or therapeutic aspiration.
2). It is the best investigation for minimal plural effusion Q.
3). Pleural biopsy: If pleural fluid analysis is inconclusive, consider parietal pleural biopsy with an Abrams' needle.