All the following metals are used for making the orthopedic implants except (AIIMS Nov 2009)
|B||Titanium, aluminum vanadium alloys|
|C||Pure titanium alloys|
a. Venable and stuck in 1937 reported that the metals create an electric potential when bathed in the saline environment of the soft tissues and causes local tissue necrosis, corrosion of the metal and consequent loosening of the implant.
b. Since then metals with the lowest electrolytic coefficient have been evaluated and tested, so currently most orthopedic implants are made up of 316L steel (Composed of Iron, Chromium and Nickel) Titanium, aluminum vanadium alloys, or commercially pure titanium (titanium oxygen).
c. Copper is not used for orthopedic implants.