Alpha-fetoprotein in maternal serum and/or amniotic fluid is increased in all, except
|A||Fetal neural tube defects|
a. Low levels of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) may be associated with chromosomal abnormalities.
b. Altered levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and unconjugated estriol (UE3) also may be associated with fetal chromosomal abnormalities.
c. A fetus with trisomy 21 results in hCG levels that are higher than expected and UE3 levels that are decreased Q.
d. A triple panel screen in combination with maternal age can be used to estimate the risk of fetal trisomy 21 for an individual woman.