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  1. Layers (from inside out)
    1. Mucous membrane
    2. Pharyngobasilar fascia (Pharyngeal Aponeurosis)
    3. Muscle layer
    4. Buccopharyngeal fascia
  2. Mucous membrane
    1. Nasopharynx: Pseudostratified columnar
    2. Orpharynx & Hypopharynx : non -keratinizing stratified squamous
  3. Muscle layers: (have 3 muscles each)
    1. Inner layer (longitudnal)
      1. Stylopharyngeus
      2. Palaptopharyngeus
      3. Salpingopharyngeus
    2. Outer layer (circular)
      1. Superior constrictor                    
      2. Middle constrictor                       
      3. Inferior constrictor
      4. Longitudinal muscles: elevated the larynx & shorten the pharynx
      5. Circular muscles: Propel the food bolus
      6. Sinus of Morgagni: Is an interval between the upper border of the superior constrictor and the skull base.The Eustachian tube enters the nasopharynx through this
      7. Killian’s dehiscence: lies between the oblique (thyropharyngeus) and transverse (cricopharyngeus) parts of the inferior constrictor muscle. Syn. Gateway of Tears
  4. Structures entering the pharynx:
    1. Above the superior constrictor
      1. Cartilaginous part of eustachian tube
      2. Tensor palati
      3. Levator palati
      4. Palatine branch of ascending pharyngeal artery
    2. Between the middle and superior constrictor
      1. Stylopharyngeus
      2. Glossopharyngeal nerve
    3. Between the middle and inferior constrictor:
      1. Internal laryngeal nerves
      2. Superior laryngeal vessels
    4. Below the inferior constrictor
      1. Recurrent laryngeal nerves
      2. Inferior laryngeal artery
  5. Nerve supply of the pharynx: All the muscles of the pharynx except the stylopharyngeus (by IXth Nerve) and the Tensor Palati (Vth Nerve) are supplied by the PHARYNGEAL PLEXUS (Made of IXth &. Xth nerves and sympathetic fibers)

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