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  1. Complete Hanging: is suspension of the body by ligature encircling the neck, constricting force being the weight of the body Partial Hanging : the weight of head acts as constricting force
  2. Typical Hanging : the ligature runs from the midline above the thyroid cartilage symmetricaly upwards on both sides of neck to the occipital region, where the knot is present.
  3. Atypical Hanging: knot at a site other then the typical hanging.
  4. Signs of Antemortem Hanging:
    1. Dribbling of saliva * is most important external sign of ante mortem hanging. Dribbling or Trickling of saliva is due to stimulation of the salivary glands. The salivary gland is stimulated to produce saliva rather than being compressed by direct pressure to produce saliva. This is a sure shot sign that the victim was alive at the time of hanging
    2. Le facies sympathique: vital sign of AM hanging, when knot presses cervical  sympathetic trunk the eye on that side remains open and the pupil is dilated.
    3. Internal features:
      • ABDUCTION # or ant. Compression fracture of HYOID bone. (Inward compression fracture or
      • ADDUCTION # seen in THROTTLING *)
        Seen in 15 – 20 % , and in persons > 40 yrs.
        # At the junction of inner 2/3rd and outer 1/3rd of greater cornua.
  5. Judicial hanging:
    • The knot is under the angle of jaw in Indian legal death sentence.
    • Placement of knot below the chin is said to be more effective.
    • Hangman’s fracture- fracture of pedicles of axis resulting in anterior dislocation of C2 on C3 with or without odontoid process fracture which results in rupture of the brainstem between the pons and the medulla leading to unconsciousness and irreversible apnoea,
    • length of rope from the point of suspension is equal to the height of individual.
    • Internal coats of carotid artery usually ruptured in violent cases of long drop.
  6. Lynching:
    1. homicidal hanging in which a suspect accused is hanged by a rope from a tree by the mob.


  1. Ligature strangulation: Constriction of neck by ligature without suspending the body.
    The ligature mark completely encircles the neck transversely, below the thyroid cartilage.
  2. Manual strangulation (throttling) – Strangulation by human hands
    In Throttling :
    # of hyoid bone in 30 – 50 %, inward compression
    #(periosteum torn on the outer side)
    # of both thyroid & hyoid bone.                         
  3. Mugging: strangulation by holding the neck in the bend of elbow.
  4. Bansdola: strangulation with sticks.
  5. Garroting: The victim is attacked from behind without warning and a ligature is thrown over the neck and quickly tightened by twisting it with a lever ( rod, stick etc), which results in sudden loss of consciousness and collapse. The assailant is then able to tie the ligature with one or more turns. In this way a single assailant can kill a healthy adult male. It is usually used in lonely places to kill travelers and rob them. It was a method of execution in spain, where it is called Spanish Windlass, in which an iron collar around the neck was tightened by screw for strangling.

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