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  1. Quantitative data: Continuous, interval & ratio variables are always quantitative
  2. Qualitative data: Discrete, nominal variables always qualitative (categorical data)
  3. Mean is the only measure of central tendency affected by extreme or outlying values
  4. In right sided or positive skew: Mean > Median > Mode
  5. In left sided or negative skew: Mean < Median < Mode
  6. Standard error is inversely proportional to sample size   
  8. Correlation is relationship between variables
  9. Co-efficient of correlation is always between –1 and +1(not more than +1 or lessthan-1)
  10. Type I error: also known as false positive error; rejecting a null hypothesis which is true (RNT)
  11. Type II error: also known as false negative error; accepting a null hypothesis which is false (ANF)
  12. P-value: probability of committing type I error
  13. Power: (1 – β error)
Tests of significance: (Flow Chart)
Questions Concerning Nominal Ordinal Interval/Ratio
Differences in proportion X2 test - -
One or two means     ‘t’ or ‘z’ test
When n≤ 100: T test
When n > 100: Z test
More than two means     ANOVA with F test

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