- Fibrous bands of connective tissue travel through the breast (suspensory ligaments of Cooper), insert perpendicularly into the dermis, and provide structural support.
- The deep or posterior surface of the breast rests on the fascia of the pectoralis major, serratus anterior, and external oblique abdominal muscles, and the upper extent of the rectus sheath.
- The retromammary bursa may be identified on the posterior aspect of the breast between the investing fascia of the breast and the fascia of the pectoralis major muscles.
- The axillary tail of Spence extends laterally across the anterior axillary fold.
- The upper outer quadrant of the breast contains a greater volume of tissue than do the other quadrants.
- The breast extends from second seventh rib and extending from lateral side of the sternum to the axilla and nipple at 4th intercostal space.
- The breast consists of glandular tissue embedded into connective tissue and fat.
- The gland tissue is divided into 10 to 20 lobes with basic milk secreting units, lobules. Each lobe has its own lactiferous ducts which converge at the areola.
- Under the areola the ducts have a dilatation called sinus lactiferous (ampullA..
- Breast receives its arterial supply from the lateral thoracic artery, internal thoracic artery and intercostal arteries. The veins of breast are internal thoracic veins, lateral thoracic vein and intercostal veins. Q
- The Superficial lymphatics drain into axillary lymph nodes along inferior margin of the pectoral major muscle.
- 80% of breast lymphatic drainage goes to axillary LN.
- From the medial, inner part of the breast lymph vessels perforate the intercostal spaces and empty themselves into parasternal lymph nodes. Axillary lymph nodes are approximately 30 in numbers. They are divided into: apical lymph nodes, central lymph nodes, lateral lymph nodes, pectoral lymph nodes and subscapular lymph nodes.
- Intercostal nerves innervate the main part of breast but its superior part is supplied by supraclavicular nerves.
Anatomy of the human breast, a lobe and a TDLU. (TabĂˇr 1998.)