CCF is associated with increase in all the following except: (AIPG 2009)
|A||Right atrial mean pressure|
|B||Increase Serum Sodium concentration|
|C||Increase blood urea|
|D||Increase Nor epinephrine|
Increase Serum Sodium concentration
Compensatory mechanism in heart failure
1. Heart failure is associated with Hyponatremia.
a. Increased ADH and Aldosterone results which causes retention of water and sodium.
b. Secondary water gain exceeds primary sodium gain resulting in hyponatremia.
2. Elevated serum urea levels may be seen.
Cardiac failure is associated with prerenal azotemia.
3. Right atrial mean pressure is increased congestive heart failure.
4. In patients will heart failure the levels of circulating norepinephrine may be markedly elevated reflecting the increased activity of the adrenergic nervous system. (Increase peripheral vasoconstriction).
5. Increase epinephrine leads to tachycardia.