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General Aspects Of CVS

  1. Weight: F -  250-300 gm     M- 300- 350 gm
  2. Thickness of free wall of RV: 0.23 to 0,5 cm Thickness of free wall of LV: 1.3 - 1.5 cm
  3. Effects of Ageing:
    1. Chambers:
      a.
      LA cavity size
      b.
      LV cavity size  
      c. Sigmoid shaped ventricular septum
    2. Valves:   
      1. A V calcific deposits Q            
      2. M V annular calcific deposits
      3. Fibrous thickening of leaflets      
      4. Hooding of M V leaflets towards LA
    3. Lamble excrescences
       
      (small filiform processes on line of closure AV MV org. small thrombi) Q
    4. Epicardial coronary arteries:    
      1. Calcific deposits  
      2. Atherosclerotic plaque
    5. Myocardium:  Causes of Mass
      1. sub epicardial fat            
      2. Brown atrophy lipofuscin deposition
      3. Basophilic degeneration   
      4. Amyloid deposits
    6. Aorta: Q
      1. Dilated ascending aorta with right ward shift    
      2. Elongated (tortuous) thoracic aorta
      3. Atherosclerotic
    7. Cardiac Hypertrophy: Q
      1. rate of protein synthesis (size, no. of sarcomeres & mitochondria)
      2. up regulation' of several immediate early response genes & gene program
      3. Pressure Overload Concentric hypertrophy (Wall thickness (n) / cavity diameter)
      4. Volume Overload Hypertrophy + Dilatation
    8. Category of Heart Disease: Q
      1. IHD - 80 to 90% of cardiac mortality
      2. HT heart disease
      3. Valvular heart disease
      4. Non Ischemic (primary) myocardial disease
      5. Congenital heart disease 





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