Cancer breast is relatively common in:
|A||Multiparous breast feeding women|
|B||Multiparous non-breast feeding women|
|D||Habitual abortion patients|
a. Increased exposure to estrogen is associated with an increased risk for developing breast cancer, whereas reducing exposure is thought to be protective.
b. Early menarche, nulliparity, and late menopause, are associated with increased risk.
c. Moderate levels of exercise and a longer lactation period, factors that decrease the total number of menstrual cycles, are protective.
d. Older age at first live birth is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer.
e. There is an association between obesity and increased breast cancer risk. Because the major source of estrogen in postmenopausal women is the conversion of androstenedione to estrone by adipose tissue, obesity is associated with a long-term increase in estrogen exposure.
f. Nonhormonal risk factors include radiation exposure. Young women who receive mantle radiation therapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma have a breast cancer risk that is 75 times greater than that of age-matched control subjects.
g. Amount and duration of alcohol consumption are associated with an increased breast cancer risk. Alcohol consumption is known to increase serum levels of estradiol.
h. Chronic consumption of foods with a high fat content contributes to an increased risk of breast cancer by increasing serum estrogen levels.