Thyroid & Adrenal
Carcinoma tongue is most commonly located at
a. The oral tongue is a muscular structure with overlying nonkeratinizing squamous epithelium.
b. The posterior limit of the oral tongue is the circumvallate papillae, whereas its ventral portion is contiguous with the anterior floor of mouth subsites including the lateral tongue, the tip the ventral tongue, and the posterior tongue.
c. The tongue is composed of four intrinsic and four extrinsic muscles separated at the midline by the median fibrous lingual septum.
d. Tumors of the tongue begin in the stratified epithelium of the surface and eventually invade into the deeper muscular structures.
e. The presentation is commonly an ulcerated or exophytic mass .
f. The regional lymphatics of the oral cavity are to the submandibular space and the upper cervical lymph nodes .
g. The lingual nerve and the hypoglossal nerve may be invaded directly by tumors .
h. Their involvement produces the clinical findings of loss of sensation of the dorsal tongue surface and deviation on tongue protrusion, fasciculations, and atrophy.
i. Tumors on the tongue may occur on any surface, but are most commonly seen on the lateral tongue and the ventral surfaces.
j. Primary tumors of the tongue musculature or mesenchymal components include leiomyomas, leiomyosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and neurofibromas.