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ADHD: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

  1. Either
(1) Six (or more) of the following symptoms of inattention have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with development level:


  1. Often falls to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork work or other activities.
  2. Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities.
  3. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
  4. Often does not follow through on instruction and falls to finish schoolwork chores, or duties in the workplace (not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions.)
  5. Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities.
  6. Often avoids dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (Such as schoolwork or homework).
  7. Often loses things necessary for tasks or activities (e.g. to)’s. school assignments pencils books or toots).
  8. Is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli
  9. Is often forgetful in daily activities.

(2) Six (or more) of the following symptoms of hyperactivity impulsivity have persisted for at least 6 month to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistence with developmental level :

  1. Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat.
  2. Often leaves seat in classroom or in other situation in which remaining seated is expected.
  3. Often run about or climbs’ in situations in which it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults, may be limited  
  4. to  subjective feelings of restlessness).
  5. Often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly.
  6. Often “on the go” often acts as if driven by a motor’’
  7. Often talks excessively impulsivity
  8. Often blurts out answers before questions have been completed .
  9. Often has difficulty awaiting turn.
  10. Often interrupts or intrudes on other (e.g. butts into conversation or games)
  1. Some hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that caused impairment were present before age of 7 years.
  2. Some impairment from the symptoms is present in two or more settings (e.g at school or work) and at home.
  3. There must be clear evidence of clinically significant impairment in social academic or occupational functioning.

Hyperactivity, Attention decreased and impulsivity.
Treatment approaches:-

  1. Parental counseling
  2. Behavior interventions – eg. Positive and negative reinforcement
  3. Pharmacology - DOC Amphetamine- Methylphenidate: the non-stimulant drug is Atomoxatime.
    Other drugs being used are dextroamphetamine’s, pemoline, imipramine, clonidine and thioridazine.
    Contra indicated - Barbiturates – Increased hyperactivity / Lithium is of no used in treatment of ADHD.
  4. Psychotherapeutic and educational measures- Liason at School with teachers is very important e.g. telling them that ADHD children do better in one to one setting rather than in a big group, sitting in front row is better and work assignment need to be tailored to improve the attentional deficits.

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