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Tic disorder

  1. Tic are involuntary, sudden, rapid, recurrent, non rhythmic, stero typed motor movements of vocalizations.
  2. Motor and vocal tic can be simple or complex
    e.g. of     simple motor tics – eye blinking, neck jerking simple vocal tics – coughing, throat cleaning etc.
  3. Complex motor tics – more purposeful and ritualistic e.g. grooming behavour jumping.
  4. Complex vocal tics – coprolalia – using obscene words etc.
  5. Gilles De la Tourette – Multiple motor & vocal tics of abusive language.
  6. Syndrome
  7. Duration > 1 years
  8. DOC – Haloperidol and clonidine. Now Atypical anti psychotics are drug of choice.
Macdonald triad
The Macdonald triad is a set of three behavioral characteristics which are associated with sociopathic behavior. These behavioral characteristics are found in the childhood histories of individuals with sociopathic behavior:
  1. Enuresis (bedwetting)
  2. Firesetting
  3. Torturing small animals
The Macdonald triad is also known as the triad of sociopathy. It was first identified by a forensic psychiatrist, John Marshall Macdonald, in a 1963 paper in the American Journal of Psychiatry titled "The Threat to Kill".

The Macdonald triad is considered predictive of future criminal behavior.

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