Colorectal pseudo-obstruction has been associated with all of the following EXCEPT
|A||excess parasympathetic tone|
|B||malignant infiltration of the celiac plexus|
a. Primary pseudo-obstruction is a motility disorder that is either a familial visceral myopathy (hollow visceral myopathy syndrome) or a diffuse motility disorder involving the autonomic innervation of the intestinal wall.
b. Secondary pseudo-obstruction is more common and has been associated with neuroleptic medications, opiates, severe metabolic illness, myxedema, diabetes mellitus, uremia, hyperparathyroidism, lupus, scleroderma, Parkinson's disease, and traumatic retroperitoneal hematomas.
c. Indirect support for this theory has been derived from the success in treating the syndrome with neostigmine, a parasympathomimetic agent.