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Introduction to Common Pediatric Infections

Table: Common causes of exanthematous illnesses in India

Macular or maculopapular rash

Measles, rubella, dengue, roseola infantum, erythema infectiosum, drug rash, infectious mononucleosis, chikungunya, adenoviral infections, enteroviral infections, mycoplasma infections, secondary syphilis, brucellosis, scrub typhus, chronic hepatitis B, cytomegalovirus infection, HIV infection, systemic lupus, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis

Diffuse erythema with peeling or desquamation

Scarlet fever, Steven Johnson syndrome, drug-induced toxic epidermolysis, staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, Kawasaki disease

Vesicular rash

Varicella, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, enteroviral infections, papulonecrotic tuberculids

Petechial or purpuric rash

Meningococcemia, dengue hemorrhagic fever, gonococcemia, hemorrhagic measles or varicella, cutaneous vasculitis, Henoch Schönlein purpura

Urticarial rash

Scabies, cutaneous larva migrans, insect bites, pediculosis

Nodular rash

Molluscum contagiosum, disseminated histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, erythema nodosum (secondary to tuberculosis, drugs, sarcoidosis, inflammatory bowel disease, leprosy)

Common and serious conditions are italicized

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